The Basics of Special Relativity are the Same: It is A Deliberate Attempt for Conceptual Modifications Only. Space – Time is A Curvature (Complete Closed Loop) for Fermions only And Space – Time is A Curvature (Semi – Elliptical) for Bosons.


Prasenjit Debnath



A defining year in physics was 1905 when great Einstein first postulated a great theory in physics: the special theory of relativity. Very few understood the theory that time and even fewer believed in this theory. Keeping all the basics of that theory intact, it is just a deliberate attempt to introduce some conceptual modifications in the special theory of relativity. This paper also focuses on space – time as a curvature (Complete Closed Loop) for fermions and space – time is a curvature (Semi – Elliptical) for bosons. The assumptions are made that mass and velocity of a particle or antiparticle cannot go negative. A revision on the mass – energy equivalence equation is proposed in this paper and theoretical relationships of space – time for fermions and bosons are proposed with some conceptual modifications in the special theory of relativity in the light of particle and antiparticle pair production and annihilation. In this paper, conceptual modifications are arranged in such a way to justify conclusion.


The special theory of relativity,Space –time, Particle and antiparticle pair,Annihilation,Mass –energy equivalence equation,


I.Roger Penrose, “Cycles of Time”, Vintage Books, London, pp. 50-56.

.II.Stephen Hawking, “A Briefer History of Time”, Bantam Books, London, pp. 1-49.

III.Stephen Hawking, “Black holes and Baby Universes and other essays”, Bantam Press, London 2013, ISBN 978-0-553-40663-4.

IV.Stephen Hawking, “The Grand Design”, Bantam Books,London 2011.

V.Stephen Hawking, “A Brief History of Time”, Bantam Books, London 2011, pp. 156-157. ISBN-978-0-553-10953-5.

VI.Stephen Hawking, “The Universe in a Nutshell”, Bantam Press, London 2013, pp. 58-61, 63, 82-85, 90-94, 99, 196. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.

VII. Stephen Hawking, “A stubbornly persistent illusion-The essential scientific works of Albert Einstein”, Running Press Book Publishers, Philadelphia, London 2011.

VIII. Stephen Hawking, “Stephen Hawking’s Universe: Strange Stuff Explained”,PBS site on imaginary time.IX.Stephen Hawking, “The Beginning of Time”, A Lecture.


View Download

Elasto-damage Modeling of Concrete Subjected to Proportionate and Non-proportionate Multiaxial State of Stress


Asad-ur-Rehman Khan, Tatheer Zahra



This study focuses on the improvement of predictive capabilities of elasto-damage model, initially proposed by Khan et al., for concrete subjected to multiaxial state of stress. The critical energy release rate 𝑅𝑐, which was initially assumed constant, is defined as a function of 𝑓𝑐′, and 𝐸𝑜 in the present study. Parameters 𝛼,𝛽 and 𝛾 used in effective compliance matrix, are redefined for the proposed form of 𝑅𝑐 by regressing against available experimental data to obtain better estimates. The computer code for implementing the model is modified such that it is able to predict the response of concrete under both proportionate and non-proportionate loadings. The predictive capability of model to simulate stress-strain response of concrete subjected to multiaxial stresses and confining pressures is shown to have improved. The model is able to predict essential phenomenological behavior of concrete which relate well with the experimental results.


Multiaxial stresses,Elasto-damage modeling,Confinement,Damage accumulation,Proportionate loading, Non-proportionate loading,


I.A.R.Khan, A.H.Gadhib, M.H.Baluch, “Elasto-damage model for high strength concrete subjected to multiaxialloading”, International Journal of Damage Mechanics; Vol. 16,pp. 361-398, July 2007.

II.A.R.Khan, N.Naseem, “Damage model for normal and high strength concrete”. In Proceedings of Concrete Modelling (CONMOD ’08), Delft, The Netherlands, 26-28 May, 2008.

III.C.Z.Wang, Z.H.Guo, X.Q.Zhang, “Experimental investigation of biaxial and triaxial compressive concrete strength”, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 84, pp. 92–100, 1987.

IV.D.C.Candappa, J.G.Sanjayan, S.Setunge, “Complete triaxial stress-strain curves of high-strengthconcrete”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol.: 13, Issue: 3, 209–215, 2001.

V.D.Sfer, I.Carol, R.Gettu, “Study of the behaviour of concrete under triaxial compression”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol.: 128, Issue: 2,pp. 156-163, 2002.

VI.G.Wischers, “Applications of effects of compressive loads on concrete”. BetonTechnischeBerichte No 2 and 3, Duesseldorf, Germany. 1978.

VII.G.Z.Voyiadjis, J.M.Abu-Lebdeh, “Plasticity model for concrete using the bounding surface concept”, International Journal of Plasticity;Vol.: 10, pp. 1-21, 1994.

VIII.H.B.Kupfer, H.K.Hildrof, H.Rusch, “Behavior of concrete under biaxial stresses”, Proc ACI, Vol.: 66, Issue: 8, pp.656-666, 1969.

IX.H.C.Wu, C.Komarakulnanakorn, “Endochronic theory of continuum damage mechanics”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE;Vol.: 124, Issue: 2, 200-208, 1998.

X.I.Imran, J.Pantazopoulou, “Experimental study of plain concrete under triaxial stress”, ACI Materials Journal, Vol.: 93, Issue: 6, pp. 589–601, 1996.

XI.J.Lee, G.L.Fenves, “Plastic-Damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 124, Issue: 8, pp. 892-900, 1998

XII.J.Linhua, H.Dahai, X.Nian Xing, “Behavior of concrete under traixial compressive-compressive -tensile stresses”, ACI Materials Journal, Vol.; 88, Issue: 2, pp. 181-185, 1991.

XIII.M.Attard, S.Setunge, “Stress-strain relationship of confined and unconfined concrete”, ACI Materials Journal,Vol.: 93, Issue: 5, pp. 433–442, 1996.

XIV.R.R.Babu, G.S.Benipal, A.K.Singh, “Constitutive modeling of concrete: An overview”, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing), Vol.:6, Issue: 4, pp. 211-246, 2005.

XV.S.H.Ahmad, S.P.Shah, “Complete triaxial stress-strain curves for concrete”, Proc. ASCE, Vol.: 108, Issue: 4, pp. 728–742, 1982.

XVI.T.Gabet, X. H.Vu, Y.Malecot, L.Daudeville, “A new experimental technique for the analysis of concrete under high triaxial loading”, Journal de Physique IV, Vol.: 134, pp. 635-640, 2006.

XVII.T.Hampel, K.Speck, S.Scheerer, R.Ritter, M.Curbach, “High-performance concrete under biaxial and triaxial loads”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol.: 135, Issue: 11, pp. 1274-1280, 2009.

XVIII.T.H.Wee, M.S.Chin, M.A.Mansur, “Stress-strain relationship of high-strength concrete in compression”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol.: 8, Issue: 2, pp. 70-76, 1996.

XIX.V.S.Gopalratnam, S.P.Shah, “Softening response of plain concrete in direct tension”, Proc. ACI,Vol.: 82, Issue: 3, pp. 310-323, 1985.

XX.W.F.Chen, Constitutive Equations for Engineering Materials, Vol.1: Elasticity and Modelling, Elsevier Publications, 1994.

XXI.W.P.Lokuge, J.G.Sanjayan, S.Setunge, “Stress strain model for laterally confined concrete”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE; Vol.: 17, Issue: 6, pp. 607–616, 2005.

XXII.W.Suaris, C.Ouyang, V.M.Fernando, “Damage model for cyclic loading of concrete”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 116, Issue: 5, pp. 1020-1035, 1990.

View Download

The two variables (G’ /G,1/G) – expansion method for investigating exact solutions to nonlinear medium equal width equation


Md. Azmol Huda, M. Ali Akbar , Md Samsuzzoha



In this article, the (G' /G,1/G) - expansion method, an extension of the (G'/G) -expansion method, is applied to searching further general closed form traveling wave solutions of the nonlinear partial differential equations viz. the medium equal width (MEW) equation. This equation comes out in many physical applications and is used to model for nonlinear dispersive waves. The obtaining exact solutions are expressed in terms of hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions. This method represents a wider applicability for solving different nonlinear wave equations and demonstrates power, reliability and efficiency.


Nonlinear PDEs,Closed form traveling wave solutions,nonlinear evolution equations,medium equal width equation(MEW),


I.Akbar, M.A., Norhashidah, H.M., Ripan, R. “Closed form solutions of two time fractional nonlinear wave equations ”. Results in Physics, Vol. 9, pp 1031-1039 (2018).

II.Akbar, M.A., Norhashidah, H.M., Wazwaz, A.M. “Closed form traveling wave solutions of nonlinear fractional evolution equations through the modified simple equation method”. Thermal Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp 341-352 (2018).

III.Akbulut, A., Kaplan, M. & Tascan, F. “Conservation laws and exact solutions of Phi-Four equation via the (G′/G, 1/G)-expansion method”. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A, Vol. 71, No. 5, pp 439-446 (2016).

IV.Demiray, S., Ünsal, Ö., Bekir, A. “Exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations using (G′/G,1/G)-expansion method”. Journal of the Egyptian Mathematical Society, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp 78-84 (2015).

V.Demiray, S., Ünsal, Ö., Bekir, A. “New exact solutions for Boussinesq type equations by using (G’/G,1/G) and (1/G)-expansion methods”. Acta Physica Polonica A, Vol. 125, No. 5, pp 1093-1098 (2014).

VI.Ebadi, G., Anjan, B. “The (G′/G) method and 1-soliton solution of the Davey–Stewartson equation”. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Vol. 53, No. 5, pp 694–698 (2011).

VII.Guo, S., Yubin, Z. “The extended (G’/G) expansion method and its applications to theWhitham–Broer–Kaup–Like equations and coupled Hirota–Satsuma KdV equations”. Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 215, No. 9, pp 3214–3221 (2010).

VIII.Hafiz, U., Akbar, M.A., Ashrafuzzaman K., Abdul, H. “Closed form solutions of the fractional generalized reaction Duffing model and the density dependent fractional diffusion reaction equation”. Appl. Comput. Math., Vo. 6, No. 4, pp 177-184 (2018).

IX.He, J.H., Wu, X.H. “Exp-function method for nonlinear wave equations”. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, Vol. 30, pp 700-708 (2006).

X.Jesmin, A., Akbar, M.A. “Solitary wave solutions to two nonlinear evolution equations via the modified simple equation method”. New Trends Math. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4, pp 12-26 (2016).

XI.Kamruzzaman, K., Akbar, M.A. “Solitary wave solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsev-Modified equal-width equation”. J. Information & Optimization Sci., Vol. 37, No. 4, 569-589 (2016).

XII.Kamruzzaman, K., Akbar, M.A., Ahmet, B. “Solitary and periodic wave solutions of nonlinear wave equations via the functional variable method”. Journal of Interdisciplinary Mathematics, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp 43-57 (2018).

XIII.Mamun, M., Shahadat, A., Akbar, M.A., Wazwaz, A.M. “Some applications of the (G′/G, 1/G)-expansion method to find new exact solutions of NLEEs”. The European Physical Journal Plus, Vol. 132, pp 1-15 (2017).

XIV.Morrison, P.J., Meiss, J.D. and Cary, J.R. “Scattering of regularized-long-wave solitary waves”. Physica D., Vol. 11, No. 3, pp 324-336 (1984).

XV.Nur, A., Akbar, M.A., Hafez, M.G., Fethi, M. B. “Application of new generalized (G′/G)-expansion method to the (3+1)-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation”. Italian J.Pure Appl. Math., Vol. 36, pp 415-428 (2016).

XVI.Nurul, I., Akbar, M.A. “Closed form exact solutions to the higher dimensional fractional Schrodinger equation via the modified simple equation method”. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 6, pp 90-102 (2018).

XVII.Peter, J.O.: Introduction to Partial Differential Equations, New York: Springer (2013).

XVIII.Richard, H.E.: It’s a Nonlinear World,New York: Springer (2010).

XIX.Shafiqul, I., Akbar, M.A., Kamruzzaman, K. “Analytical solutions of nonlinear Klein–Gordon equation using the improved F-expansion method”. Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol 50, No. 5, pp 1-11 (2018).

XX.Shafiqul, I., Kamruzzaman, K., Akbar, M.A. “Exact traveling wave solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional potential Yu-Toda-Sasa-Fukuyama equation through the improved F-expansion method with Riccati equation”. Int. J. Computing Science and Math., Vol. 8, No. 1, pp 61-72 (2017).

XXI.Shakeel, M., Mohyud-Din, S.T. “Soliton solutions for the positive Gardner-KP equation by (G′/G, 1/G)-expansion method”. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Vol. 5, No.3, pp 951-958 (2014).

XXII.Wang, M., Li, X., Zhang, J. “The (G’/G) expansion method and traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics”. Physics Letters A, Vol. 372, pp 417–423 (2008).

XXIII.Wang, M.L., Li, X.L., Li, Q.E. “The (G’/G,1/G)-expansion method and its application to traveling wave solutions of Zakharov equations”. Appl. Math. J. Chin. Univ., Vol. 25, No. 4, pp 454-462 (2010).

XXIV.Wazwaz, A.M.: Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory, Springer-Verlag, New York (2009).


View Download



Kosalendra.Eethamakula, V.Sridhar, K.V.Ranga Rao, Sudipta Ghosh



The structure of supportable wireless-sensor-network’s(W/S/N’s) is an extremely testing matter From single perspective, vitality compelled sensors are relied upon to run self-sufficiently for extensive stretches. Be that as it may, it might be cost-restrictive to supplant depleted batteries or even outlandish in threatening situations. Then again, in contrast to different systems, WSNs are intended for explicit applications which run from little size medicinal services reconnaissance frameworks to extensive scale natural checking. Along these lines, any WSN sending needs to fulfil a lot of necessities that contrasts starting with one application then onto the next. In this unique circumstance, a large group of investigate occupation have been directed so as to suggest a wide scope of answers for the vitality sparing issue. This exploration covers a few zones going from a top-down review. Here we plan a design for WSNs utilizing turbo decoder. We deteriorate the LUT-Log-MBCJR design into its most essential add/compare/select (A/C/S) tasks also execute them utilizing a novel low-multifaceted nature ACS component. At that point we present another order of energy preservation strategy found in the ongoing writing, trailed by a deliberate discourse concerning how these plans struggle with the particular prerequisites. At long last, we study the methods linked in W/S/Ns to achieve exchange off flanked by a variety of prerequisites, for instance, multi-target streamlining.


Energy-efficient,error-correcting code (ECC), Log-MBCJR algorithm,turbo codes,


I.A. J. Viterbi, “An intuitive justification and a simplified implementation of the MAP decoder for convolutional codes,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Commun., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 162–264, 1998.

II.C.M.Wu, M. D. Shieh, C. H.Wu,Y.T.Hwang, and J.H.Chen, “VLSI architectural design tradeoffs for sliding-window log-MAP decoders,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 439–447,Apr. 2005.

III.C. Studer, C. Benkeser, S. Belfanti, and Q. Huang, “Design and implementation of a parallel turbo-decoder ASIC for 3GPP-LTE,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 46, pp. 8–17, 2011.

IV.C. Benkeser, A. Burg, T. Cupaiuolo, and Q. Huang, “Design and optimization of an HSDPA turbo decoder ASIC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 98–106, Jan. 2009.

V.C. Wong, Y. Lee, and H. Chang, “A 188-size 2.1 mm reconfigurable turbo decoder chip with parallel architecture for 3GPP LTE system,” in Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits, 2009, pp. 288–289.

VI.C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, and P. Thitimajshima, “Near Shannon limit error correcting coding and decoding: Turbo codes,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 1993, pp. 1064–1070.

VII.C. Schurgers, F. Catthoor, and M. Engels, “Memory optimization of MAP turbo decoder algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 305–312, Feb. 2001.

VIII.E. Boutillon, C. Douillard, and G. Montorsi, “Iterative decoding of concatenatedconvolutional codes: Implementation issues,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1201–1227, Jun. 2007.

IX.F.-M. Li, C.-H. Lin, and A.-Y. Wu, “Unified convolutional/turbo decoder design using tile-based timing analysis of VA/MAP kernel,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1063–8210, Oct. 2008.

X.G. Masera, M. Mazza, G. Piccinini, F. Viglione, and M. Zamboni, “Architectural strategies for low-power VLSI turbo decoders,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 279–285, Mar. 2002.

XI.G. J. Pottie and W. J. Kaiser, “Wireless integrated network sensors,” Commun. ACM, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 51–58, May 2000.

XII.I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: A survey,” Comput. Netw.: Int. J. Comput. Telecommun. Netw., vol. 52, pp. 292–422, 2008.

XIII.L. Li, R. G. Maunder, B. M. Al-Hashimi, and L. Hanzo, “An energy-efficient error correction scheme for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks,” Trans. Circuits Syst. II, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 233–237, 2010.

XIV.L. Hanzo, T. H. Liew, B. L. Yeap, R. Tee, and S. X. Ng, Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation and Space-Time Coding. New York:Wiley, 2011.

XV.L. Hanzo, J. P. Woodard, and P. Robertson, “Turbo decoding and detection for wireless applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1178–1200, Jun. 2007.

XVI.L. Li, R. G. Maunder, B. M. Al-Hashimi, and L. Hanzo, “Design of fixed-point processing based turbo codes using extrinsic information transfer charts,” in Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf., 2010, pp. 1–5.

XVII.M.May, T. Ilnseher, N.Wehn, andW. Raab, “A 150 Mbit/s 3GPP LTE turbo code decoder,” in Proc. Design, Autom. Test in Euro. Conf. Exhib. (DATE), 2010, pp. 1420–1425.

XVIII.M. A. Bickerstaff, D. Garrett, T. Prokop, C. Thomas, B. Widdup, G. Zhou, L.M. Davis, G.Woodward, C. Nicol, and R.-H. Yan, “A unified turbo/Viterbi channel decoder for 3GPP mobile wireless in 0.18-m CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1555–1564, Nov. 2002.

XIX.M. Bickerstaff, L. Davis, C. Thomas, D. Garrett, and C. Nicol, “A 24 Mb/s radix-4 log-MAP turbo decoder for 3GPP-HSDPA mobile wireless,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., 2003, pp. 150–484.

XX.M. C. Valenti and J. Sun, “The UMTS turbo code and an efficient decoder implementation suitable for software-defined radios,” Int. J. Wirel. Inform. Netw., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 203–215, 2001.

XXI.P. Corke, T. Wark, R. Jurdak, H. Wen, P. Valencia, and D. Moore, “Environmental wireless sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 98, no. 11, pp. 1903–1917, Nov. 2010.

XXIIP. Robertson, P. Hoeher, and E. Villebrun, “Optimal and sub-optimal maximum a posteriori algorithms suitable for turbo decoding,” Euro. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 119–125, 1997.

XXIII.S. L. Howard, C. Schlegel, and K. Iniewski, “Error control coding in low-power wireless sensor networks:When is ECC energy-efficient?,” EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw., vol. 2006, pp. 1–14, 2006.

XXIV.S.-G. Lee, C.-H.Wang, andW.-H. Sheen, “Architecture design of QPP interleaver for parallel turbo decoding,” in Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf., 2010, pp. 1–5.

XXV.V.Sridhar,Venkat Ritesh Ghanta,T.Venu Gopal,“Spectrum Sensing In Cognitive Radio Using Energy Bandwidth Characteristic”, Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems Vol. 9, Issue 2 ,OCT.2017,ISSN 1943-023X.

XXVI.V.Sridhar,P.Swetha,T.Venugopal,“Energy Efficient Key Management Schemefor Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks”Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical &Control Systems, 15-Special Issue, December 2017,ISSN 1943-023X,809-814.

XXVII.Y. Zhang and K. K. Parhi, “High-throughput radix-4 logMAP turbo decoder architecture,” in Proc. Asilomar Conf. Signals, Syst., Comput., 2006, pp. 1711–1715.

XXVIII.Y. Sun and J. R. Cavallaro, “Efficient hardware implementation of a highly-parallel 3GPP LTE, LTE-advance turbo decoder,” Integr., VLSI J., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2010.

XXIX.W.-P. Ang and H. K. Garg, “A new iterative channel estimator for the log-MAP & max-log-MAP turbo decoder in Rayleigh fading channel,” in Proc. Global Telecommun. Conf., 2001, vol. 6, pp. 3252–3256.

XXX.Z. Wang, “High-speed recursion architectures for MAP-Based turbo decoders,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 470–474, Apr. 2007.

XXXI.Z. He, P. Fortier, and S. Roy, “Highly-parallel decoding architectures for convolutional turbo codes,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1063–8210, Oct. 2006.

View Download

Study on Utilization of Different Lightweight Materials Used in the Manufacturingof Lightweight Concrete Bricks/Blocks


Jowhar Hayat, Saqib Shah, Faisal Hayat Khan, Mehr E Munir



Conventional clay bricks are heavier in weight which increase the overall dead load of the structure. Its formation creates smoke, loss of agricultural land and high energy consumption. To avoid these problems, Lightweight concrete is used in the construction due to its applications such as reduction of dead loads, seismic loads, environmental pollution and labor cost. In this study, the lightweight concrete is used to make lightweight concrete bricks/blocks. The lightweight materials used are; shale aggregate, expanded polystyrene and gypsum, paper pulp. The compressive strength and weight test of the samples were carried out. The papercrete was selected because of its lightweight, reasonable price and local availability. The results indicate that the papercrete bricks are 15% lighter in weight than conventional clay bricks. Due to low compressive strength these bricks are acceptable only for non-load bearing walls and are potentially ideal material for earthquake prone regions


Lightweight Concrete,,Dead Loads,Compressive strength,Papercrete,Non-load bearing walls,


I.A. A. A. M. H. B. Pedram Farnood Ahmadi, “Characteristics of heat insulating clay bricks made from zeolite, waste steel slag and expanded perlite,” Ceramics International, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 7588-7598, May,2018.

II.D. S. C. A. J. Tashima MM, “The possibility of adding RHA to the concrete,” construction and building materials, pp. 778-86, 2004.

III.H. E. Al-Mudhaf, “Performance of autoclaved aerated-concrete masonry walls in Kuwait,” Materials and Structures, vol. 29, no. 191, pp. 448-452, Aug, 1996.

IV.J. A. Bogas, “Non-structural lightweight concrete with volcanic scoria aggregates for lightweight fill in building’s floors,” Construction & building materials, vol. 135, pp. 151-163, Mar, 2017.

V.K. Hossain, “Potential use of volcanic pumice as construction material,” Journal of Material in Civil engineering, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 573-577, Nov, 2004.

VI.L. J. H. Q. C. P. Z. S. Y.M. Zhang, “Fabrication, microstructure and properties of bricks fired from lake sediment, cinder and sewage sludge,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 121, pp. 154-160, Sep, 2016.

VII.R. H. C. Y. J. C. J.M Chi, “Effect of aggregate properties on the strength and stiffness of lightweight concrete,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 197-205, Feb,2003.

VIII.R. k. Rohit Komar Arya, “Utilization of Waste Papers to Produce Ecofriendly Bricks,” International Journal of Science and Research, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 92-96, Aug, 2016.

IX.R. R. Sabaa B.A, “Engineering properties of lightweight concrete,” Lightweight concrete, pp. 3647-3655, 1-3 January 1997.S. S. Suvorov, “Vermiculite -A promising material for high-temperature heat insulators(Review),” Refractories and Industrial Ceramics, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 186-193, May,2003.

X.S. N. Sophia M, “Gypsum as a Construction Material-A Review of recent developments,” International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 2349-6010, May, 2016.

XI.S. Shankar Ravichandran and R. E. Klingner, “Behavior of Steel Moment Frames with Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Infills,” ACI Structural Journal, vol. 109, no. 1, p. 83–90, Feb, 2012.

XII.S. S. Suvorov, “Vermiculite-A promising material for high-temperature heat insulators(Review),” Refractories and Industrial Ceramics, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 186-193, May,2003.

View Download



Azmatullah, Adil Afridi, Atif Afridi, Inayatullah Khan



Pakistan annually produces approximately 50 Million tons of sugar cane and most of it is used for production of sugar. The industrial waste of sugar cane, known as bagasse, is mostly used as fuel for power generation in the same sugar industry. We have to study the properties of sugar cane bagasse ash in concrete, the main variables in this study are the amount of sugar cane bagasse ash (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 percent by weight of cement) as a partial replacement of cement in concrete. We conclude that to improve the quality and reduce the cost of construction material. The importance of this work is to make sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as a construction material.


Artificial Pozzolan,SCBA,Compressive tests,


I.Aznar, M.P., Gracia-Gorria International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering.ISSN 2319-5347, Vol. 03, No. 01, January 2014 “A study on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete with partial replacement of Fine aggregate with Sugarcane bagasse ash”

II.Altmann, E., Kellett, P., 1999. Thermal Municipal Solid Waste Gasification. Renewable Energy Information Office, Irish Energy Centre.

III.Aznar, M.P., Gracia-Gorria,F.A., Corella, J., 1998. La velocidad minima defluizacion y de completafluidizacion de mezclas de residuosagrarios y forestales con secundosolidofluidizante. Anales de Quimica 84 (3), 385–394

IV.Barducci G., 1992. The RDF gasifier of Florentine area (Gre`ve in Chianti Italy). The first Italian-Brazilian symposiumon Sanitary and Environmental Engineering.

V.Barducci P., Neri G., 1997. An IGCC plant in Italy for power generation from biomass. Bioelettrica Internal Report.

VI.Barducci, P., Neri, G., Trebbi, G., 1997.The Energy Farm Project. World Gas Conference, Copenhagen.

VII.Baykara, S.Z., Bilgen, E., 1981. A Feasibility Study on Solar Gasification of Albertan Coal. Alternative Energy Sources IV, vol. Ann Arbor Science, New York.

VIII.Becker, B., Schetter, B., 1992. Gas turbine above 150 MW for integrated coal gasification combined cycles (IGCC). Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 114, 660–664. Bingyan, X., Zengfan, L., Chungzhi, W., Haitao, H., Xiguang, Z., 1994. Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Biomass. Integrated Energy Systems in China. The cold Northeastern Region Experience FAO. FAO.

IX.De Lange, H.J., Barducci, P., 2000. The realization of a biomass-fuelled IGCC plant in Italy. In: European Congress on Biomass TEF.

X.Delgado, J., Aznar, M.P., Corella,J., 1996. Calcined dolomite, magnesite, and calcite for cleaning hot gas from a fluidized bed biomass gasifier with steam: life and usefulness. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 35 (10), 3637–3643.

XI.Jayminkumar A. Patel*, Dr. D. B. Raijiwala (April 2015)S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, INDIA-395007)Experimental study on compressive strength of concrete by partially replacement of cement with sugar cane bagasse ash

View Download

Identification of Risk Management in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Project Peshawar


Adeed Khan, Asif Subhan, Asif Subhan, Mohammad Adil, Muhammad Amar Rafiq, Mehre Munir



Around the world, governments at all levels take part very important roles in organizing the safety and comfort of public transportation systems in the form of BRTs. Huge Construction projects such as BTR are initiated in intricate and dynamic conditions bringing about conditions of high vulnerability and risk, which are compounded by challenging phase restrictions. Constructions of BRT’s have reformed suggestively from the past numerous years. It is a structure obsessed primarily by govt. Sponsors. It is exposed against the several specific and trade risks that habitually speak to more remarkable publicities than those that are conventional. In this manner risk assessment requires develops. Risk taxation is an apparatus to classify those hazards in a task and direct it as requirements be with suitable management. Risk assessment is considered in this research as a strategy that expects to distinguish and appraise those important risks which are related to design, financial and management. The common procedure of this research rest on to a great extent on the review survey which was collected from the client, consultant and contractors of projects. A careful literature review was directed to distinguish the risk issues that influence the enactment of BRTs in general. The inspection questionnaire was designed to investigate the cross sectional behavioral arrangement of construction risks related to the BRT Peshawar. This research wants to classify and evaluate the risks and to improve a hazard supervision framework which the clients/ consultants/ contractors can implement when tightening BRT work in Pakistan.


BRT,Risk Identification,risk Assessment,



II.American National Standard. (2004). “Project management body of knowledge.”ANSI/PMI 99-001-2004, USA.

III.Edward Thomas, at the Institute of Transportation Engineers Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, August 2001.

IV.Flanagan, R., and Norman, G. (1999). “Risk management and construction.” Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.

V.Levinson, H., Zimmerman, S., Clinger, J., Rutherford, S., Cracknell, J., and Soberman,R. “Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit -Preliminary Draft Final Report” TCRP A-23,prepared for the Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., May 2002

VI.Lotshaw. (20 Jun 2011). Profiles of American BRT: Pittsburgh’s South Busway and East Busway.

VII.Loosemore, M., Raftery, J., Reilly, C., and Higgon, D. (2006). “Risk management in projects.” Taylor & Francis, London.UK.

VIII.Seung H. Han, James E. Diekmann, Young Lee, and Jong H. Ock (2004) “Multi criteria Financial Portfolio Risk Management for International Projects”

IX.Shou Qing Wang, Mohammed Fadhil Dulaimi&Muhammad Yousuf Aguria2004 “Risk management framework for construction projects in developing countries”

X.Standards Association of Australia. (1999). “Risk management.” AS/NZS 4360, Australia.

XI.American National Standard. (2004). “Project management body of knowledge.”ANSI/PMI 99-001-2004, USA.Terry Lyons and Martin Skitmorè (2004), “PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE QUEENSLAND ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: A SURVEY”

XII.Tang, W., Qiang, M., Duffield, C. F., Young, D. M., and Lu, Y.(2007). “Risk management in Chinese construction industry.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 133(12), 944-956.


View Download

A Study on Maintainability and Availability Parameters using Code Metrics


Varun K L Srivastava, Dr. Anubha Shrivastava, N. Chandra Sekhar Reddy



Programming support is a foremost characteristic from claiming programming improvement existence cycle; henceforth prior close estimation from claiming fill in to maintainability assumes a vibrant part. For large portions quite some time now, product professionals bring been gathering measurements from source book clinched alongside a exertion on superior see those product they would Creating alternately evolving. Maintainability list (MI) will be a composite metric that incorporates an amount for universal source book measurements under a solitary amount that demonstrates relative maintainability. Similarly as initially recommended the mi is comprised of weighted Halstead measurements (effort or volume), McCabe's Cyclamate Complexity, lines for code (LOC), & number about remarks [1, 2]. Two equations were presented: person that viewed as remarks & particular case that didn't. The improvement about Open Source system(OSS) is generally unique in relation to that proprietary product. In the OSS improvement situation an absolute designer alternately assembly of developers composes those source book for those initially adaptation of the product & make it uninhibitedly accessible through the web. After that different developers are welcome to help the existing code to its next discharge. Settling on that source book of the product accessible on the web permits developers around the reality to help code, include new functionality, change of the existing source book and submitting bug fixes of the present discharge. Over such a product improvement situation the upkeep of the open sourball product may be a culprit errand. Creating an OSS framework infers an arrangement from claiming incessant upkeep deliberations for debugging existing purpose & including new purpose of the programming framework. Those transform for settling on the adjustments should programming frameworks after their main discharge is known as support procedure. Those haul maintainability may be nearly identified with those programming upkeep on account of maintainability implies those effortlessness to perform upkeep of the framework. Suggested agenize based approach is give acceptable those cosset effective, productive Also exact answers for assess the programming (web application) RMA measurements including the screening to cloud registering administrations that methods “Testing/Debugging Similarly as An administration Evaluation”. Proposed system has performs faster and produce more accurate results to assure the quality of the software related to the non-functional metrics such as RMA (Reliability, Maintainability and Availability). Obtained result are outperform as compared to existing methods.


Code Metrics,Lines of Code Agent, Availability,Cloud Computing,Maintainability, Reliability,RMA,T/DaaS,Open Source Software,Maintenance,code lines,Halstead-Volume,Cyclomaticintricacy,Maintainability Index,


I.ChandruMirchandani “Cloud Computing as a Debug Tool”, Elsevier Science Direct, Procedia Computer Science, 36(2014), 359-366, 2014.

II.Koray ̇Incki, Ismail Arı and Hasan S ̈ ozer “A Survey of Software Testing in the Cloud”, IEEE, Sixth International Conference on Software Security and Reliability Companion, 2012.

III.JascharDomann,Sindy Hartmann, Michael Burkhardt, Alexander Barge and SahinAlbayrak “An Agile Method for Multiagent Software Engineering”, Elsevier Science Direct, Procedia Computer Science 32 ( 2014) 928 –934, 2014.

IV.Marco Panunzio and TullioVardanega “A component-based process with separation of concerns for the development of embedded real-time software systems”, Elsevier Science direct, The Journal of Systems and Software 96 (2014) 105–121, 2014.

V.TeroPäivärinta and Kari Smolander “Theorizing about software development practices”, Elsevier Science Direct, Science of Computer Programming 101 (2015) 124–135, 2014.

VI.Leandro L. MinkuandXin Yao “Ensembles and locality: Insight on improving software effort estimation”, Elsevier Science Direct, Information and Software Technology 55 (2013) 1512–1528, 2013.

VII.Maria Paasivaara and Casper Lassenius “Communities of practice in a large distributed agile software development organization –Case Ericsson”, Elsevier Science Direct, Information and Software Technology 56 (2014) 1556–1577, 2014.

VIII.Lu Zhong and Sun Youchao “Research on Maintainability Evaluation Model Based on Fuzzy Theory”, Elsevier Science Direct, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics 20(2007)402-407, 2006.

IX.Yod-Samuel Martín and Juan C. Yelmo “Guidance for the development of accessibility evaluation tools following the Unified Software Development Process”, Elsevier Science Direct, Procedia Computer Science 27 (2014) 302–311, 2014.

X.RashmiDewan, ShivangiKukreja and Nikita Pahuja “SOFTWARE QUALITY MANAGEMENT –A STUDY”, IJIRT | Volume 1 Issue 4 | ISSN : 2349-6002, 2014.

XI.Saraiva, J., Barreiros, E., Almeida, A., Lima, F.,Alencar, A., Lima, G., Soares, S. and Castor, F. “Aspect-Oriented Software Maintenance Metrics: A Systematic Mapping Study”, IEEE, 16th International Conference onvaluation& Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE 2012), published in IET, pp. 253 –262, 2012.

XII.Mikhail Perepletchikov and Caspar Ryan “A Controlled Experiment for Evaluating the Impact of Coupling on the Maintainability of Service-Oriented Software”, IEEE, TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY/AUGUST, 2011.

XIII.Gaoyun Chen, Jun Lu, Jian Huang and Zexu Wu “SaaAS -The Mobile Agent based Service for Cloud Computing in Internet Environment”, IEEE, Sixth International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC 2010), pp.2935 –2939, 2010.

XIV.Zehua Zhang and Xuejie Zhang “Realization of Open Cloud Computing Federation Based on Mobile Agent”, IEEE, pp. 642 –646, 2009.

XV.Javier Espadas, Arturo Molina, Guillermo Jiménez, Martín Molina, RaúlRamírez and David Concha “A tenant-based resource allocationmodel for scaling Software-as-a-Service applications over cloud computing infrastructures”, Elsevier Science Direct, Future Generation Computer Systems 29 (2013), pp. 273–286, 2013.

XVI.IBM Blue Cloud project [URL]. press/us/en/pressrelease/22613.wss/.

XVII.RizwanMian, Patrick Martin and Jose Luis Vazquez-Poletti “Provisioning data analytic workloads in a cloud”, Elsevier, Future Generation Computer Systems, pp. The Characteristics of Cloud Computing, 2012.

XVIII.Chunye Gong, Jie Liu, Qiang Zhang, Haitao Chen and Zhenghu Gong “The Characteristics of Cloud Computing”, 39th International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops, pp. 2010.

XIX.AmitNathani, Sanjay Chaudhary and GauravSoman “Policy based resource allocation in IaaS cloud”, Elsevier, Future Generation Computer Systems 28 (2012) 94–103.

View Download



Phong Thanh Nguyen, Phuong Thanh Phan, Phu-Cuong Nguyen, Ngoc Bich Vu, Loan Phuc Le



Labor productivity is among the most critical factors that heavily impact the achievement of a construction projects. In construction sites, construction techniques, construction organization, human resource management, working conditions and worker personal characteristics have significant effects on the labor productivity. Formwork, among others, is a common task in every construction project. This paper presents the measurement of labor productivity by work sampling method for floor and beam formwork of high-rise buildings in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The research identifies the proportion of time consumption for effective tasks, supportive tasks, and ineffective tasks of formwork as follows: 32%, 35%, and 33% respectively. In other words, the change in the proportion of ineffective work over periods of time through a working day enables a conclusion that the labor productivity of floor and beam formwork workers begins low, then


Formwork,construction projects,labor productivity,work sampling,


I.A. Serpell, A. Venturi, and J. Contreras, “Characterization of waste in building construction projects,” Lean construction, pp. 67-77, 1995.

II.C. Pradeepkumar and S. Loganathan, “A study on minimization of construction waste through work sampling,” International Journal of Science and Engineering Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 5687-5691, 2015.

III.D.-L. Luong, D.-H. Tran, and P. T. Nguyen, “Optimizing multi-mode time-cost-quality trade-off of construction project using opposition multiple objective difference evolution,” International Journal of Construction Management, pp. 01-13, 2018.

IV.H. R. Thomas and I. Yiakoumis, “Factor model of construction productivity,” Journal of construction engineering and management, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 623-639, 1987.

V.J. L. Jenkins and D. L. Orth, “Productivity improvement through work sampling,” Cost engineering, vol. 46, no. 3, p. 27, 2004.

VI.L. F. Alarcón, “Modeling waste and performance in construction,” Lean construction, pp. 51-66, 1997.

VII.M. Hajaghazadeh, H. Marvi-milan, H. Khalkhali, and I. Mohebbi, “Assessing the ergonomic exposure for construction workers during construction of residential buildings,” Work, no. Preprint, pp. 1-9, 2019.

VIII.N. T. Phong, V. N. Nguyen; L. H. Pham; T. A. Nguyen; Q. L. H. T. T. Nguyen; V. D. B. Huynh, “Application of supply chain management in construction industry,” Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal, journal article vol. 12, no. 2, 2018.

IX.P. F. Kaming, G. D. Holt, S. T. Kometa, and P. O. Olomolaiye, “Severity diagnosis of productivity problems—a reliability analysis,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 107-113, 1998.

X.P. T. Nguyenet al., “Construction Project Quality Management using Building Information Modeling 360 Field,” International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 228-233, 2018.

XI.P. T. Nguyen, N. B. Vu, L. V. Nguyen, L. P. Le, and K. D. Vo, “The Application of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (F-AHP) in Engineering Project Management,” in 2018 IEEE 5th International Conference on Engineering Technologies and Applied Sciences (ICETAS), 2018.

XII.P. T. Nguyen, T. A. Nguyen, Q. L. H. T. T. Nguyen, and V. D. B. Huynh, “Application of SWOT for construction company quality management using building information modelling,” Journal of Mechanics of Continua and Mathematical Sciences, vol. 13, no. 05, pp. 25-33, 2018.

XIII.S. Chang, J.-S. Yi, and J. Son, “The productivity improvement for steel framing work efficiency by work sampling and 5-minute rating technique,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 40-46, 2015.

XIV.S. Hajikazemi, B. Andersen, and J. A. Langlo, “Analyzing electrical installation labor productivity through work sampling,” International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 539-553, 2017.

XV.T. A. Nguyen and P. T.Nguyen, “Explaining model for supervisor’s behavior on safety action based on their perceptions,” ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Article vol. 10, no. 20, pp. 9562-9572, 2015.

XVI.V. Handa and O. Abdalla, “Forecasting productivity by work sampling,” Construction Management and Economics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 19-28, 1989.

XVII.W. Yi and A. P. Chan, “Effects of heat stress on construction labor productivity in Hong Kong: a case study of rebar workers,” International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 14, no. 9, p. 1055, 2017.

XVIII.W. Yi and A. P. Chan, “Optimizing work–rest schedule for construction rebar workers in hot and humid environment,” Building and Environment, vol. 61, pp. 104-113, 2013.

XIX.X. Li, K. H. Chow, Y. Zhu, and Y. Lin, “Evaluating the impacts of high-temperature outdoor working environments on construction labor productivity in China: A case study of rebar workers,” Building and environment, vol. 95, pp. 42-52, 2016.

View Download

On the applicability of Initial Rise and Peak Shape methods for Thermoluminescence peaks recorded under hyperbolic heating profile for OTOR and IMTS models


SK. Azharuddin, B. Ghosh, Ananda Sarkar, Sukhamoy Bhattachryya, P. S. Majumdar



In the present paper we have studied the applicability of Initial rise (IR) and Peak shape(PS) methods for calculation of activation energy for saturated and unsaturated thermoluminescence peaks in the frame work of OTOR and IMTS models. This peaks correspond to hyperbolic heating profile. It is shown as in the linear heating scheme that both IR and PS methods tend to underestimate the activation energies for TL peaks resulting from OTOR and IMTS models with increasing filling ratio.


Thermoluminescence (TL),One Trap One Recombination (OTOR),Interactive Multi Trap System (IMTS),Initial Rise(IR) method,Peak Shape (PS),


I.A. J. J. Bos, R. N. M. Vijverberge, T. M. Piters and S.W. S. McKeever, J. phys. D. 25(1992)

II.B. Ghosh, SK. Azharuddin and S. Ghosh, Indian J. Theoretical Phys, 63(2015)

III.G. F. J. Garlik and A. F. Gibson, Proc. Phys. Soc., London A60, 574, (1948)

IV.G. Kitis and V. Pagonis, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., B26(2007)

V.R. Chen and S. W. S. McKeever , Thermoluminescence and related phenomena, World Scintific, Singapore (1997)

VI.R. Chen and V. Pagonis, Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence, A simulation approach’ Wiley(2011)

VI.S. D. Singh, M. Karmakar, I. Bhattachryya, P. S. Majumdar, International J. Luminescence and Applications, 3(2016)

VII.SK. Azharuddin, S. D. Singh, P. S. Majumdar, J. Mech. Cont. and Math. Sci.,12(2)(2018)

IX.SK. Azharuddin, B. Ghosh, S. Ghosh and P. S. Majumdar, J. Mech. Cont. and Math. Sci., 13 (2018)

X.V. Pagonis, G. Kitis and C. Furetta, Numerical and practical exercise in thermoluminescence, Springer(2010)

View Download