Journal Vol – 14 No -3, June 2019

Full Factorial Design (2k) for 45 Degree of Wall Angle in Anisotropic Wet Etching Process


Alonggot Limcharoen Kaeochotchuangkul, Pathomporn Sawatchai, RungrueangPhatthanakun, Komgrit Leksakul



This research aims to discover the optimal anisotropic wet etching condition in order to reduce hillocks that occur on the etched surface or reduce roughness and increase etch rate for 45 degree of wall angle (micro-mirror) of a silicon substrate by adopting a design of experiment (DOE) technique and the factorial 2k. Three potential factors which are an ultrasonic mode, a speed motor and a sample orientation, are employed in the factorial design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a p-value significance level of 0.05 is used to assess the significance of the factors on an etch rate and a surface roughness (Ra). The silicon substrates were etched in 20 wt. % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at 60 ͦC of solution temperature. An experiment with 24 runs, eight conditions and three replications for each condition, was performed and it was found that the ultrasonic mode was a significant factor which affected the etch rate. An ultrasonic mode and a speed motor were significant factors influencing the surface roughness (Ra). The optimal conditions of 45 degrees of wall angle of a silicon substrate, which were the maximum etch rate and the minimum roughness, were investigated by using a desirability optimization technique in sense of a soft mode of ultrasonic, a speed motor of 5 rpm and a vertical orientation with a desirability value of 0.7619. Finally, the optimal conditions were verified with experimental result


Anisotropic Wet Etching,Silicon and Silicon dioxide, Hillock,ltrasonic Agitation,45 ̊ Wall Angle,Design of Experiment,


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VIII.Qingbin Jiao, Xin Tan, Jiwei Zhu, Shulong Feng and Jianxiang Gao, “Effects of ultrasonic agitation and surfactant additive on surface roughness of Si (1 1 1) crystal plane in alkaline KOH solution”, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Vol.: 31, pp: 222-226, 2016

IX.Shinmo An, Seung Gol Lee, Se-Guen Park, El-Hang Lee and Beom-Hoan O, “Efficacy of low etch rate in achieving nanometer-scale smoothness of Si (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) plane surfaces using KOH and KOH/IPA solutions for optical mold applications”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol: 209, pp: 124-132, 2014

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XI.Yang C.-R., Chen P.-Y., Chiou Y.-C. and Lee R.-T.,“Effects of mechanical agitation and surfactant additive on silicon anisotropic etching in alkaline KOH solution”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 119, Issue: 1, pp: 263-270, 2005

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Effects of very thin CdS window layer on CdTe solar cell


Koushik Sarkar, Seerin Jahan, Bhaskar Dutta, Sreelekha Chatterjee, Souvik Gain, Sreyashi Ghosh



The work is based on the simulation fabrication of a CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell where the benefits and limitations of very thin window (CdS) layer have been investigated. The comparison between with and without pinhole effects for various CdS thicknesses have been analysed. We used highly resistive ZnO layer to overcome the pinhole problem that we had to face due to the consideration of very thin CdS layer to enhance the short circuit current (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) as well. In this paper, the work is mainly concerned on the degradation of the performance of the solar cell due to pinhole effect and its remedy to enhance the efficiency of the cell. . It has been noticed that, the inclusion of a ZnO layer has positive effect on the performance of cell. For very thin CdS layer(50 nm), we observed a poor efficiency of the cell (8.48%) due to pinhole effect. But after insertion of the ZnO layer we recovered the efficiency (19.64%) and overall performance of the cell appreciably.




I.Zhou Fang , Xiao Chen Wang , Hong Cai Wu , and Ce Zhou Zhao , Achievements and Challenges of CdS/CdTe Solar Cells(2011) , doi:10.1155/2011/297350 , Article ID 297350, 8 pages

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VI.Xuanzhi Wub, High-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells(2004), Doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2004.06.006, pp: 803-814.

VII.Farhana Anwar, Sajia Afrin, Sakin Sarwar Satter, Rafee Mahbub, Saeed Mahmud Ullah , Simulation and Performance Study of Nanowire CdS/CdTe Solar Cell(2017) , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH F.Anwar et al., Vol.7, No.2, 2017 .

VIII.Saurabh Kumar Pandey and Krishna Kumar , Device Modeling, Optimization and Analysis of CdTe solar cell(2016) , 978-1-5090-5384-1/16 ,295-299.

IX.UtpalMadhu ,Nillohit Mukherjee , Nil Ratan Bandyopadhyay & Anup Mondal , Properties of CdS and CdTe thin films deposited by an electrochemical technique(2007) , IPC Code-H01L 31/042 , PP.226-230 .

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XI.Saeed Salem Babkair, Charge Transport Mechanisms and Device Parameters of CdS/CdTe Solar Cells Fabricated by Thermal Evaporation(2010) , DOI: 10.4197 / Sci. 22-1.2 .

XII.Ameen M. Ali, K.S. Rahman, Lamya M. Ali, M. Akhtaruzzaman, K. Sopian, S. Radiman, N. Amin, A computational study on the energy bandgap engineering in performance enhancement of CdTe thin film solar cells Results in Physics (2017), PP:1066–1072

XXIII.Demtsu, S.H. & Sites, J.R. Effect of back-contact barrier on thin-film CdTe solar cells.(2006) Thin Solid Films. 510. 320-324. doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.01.004.

XIV.MURUGAIYA SRIDAR ILANGO and SHEELA K RAMASESHA , Novel patterning of CdS/CdTe thin film with back contacts for photovoltaic application(2018) , .

XV.Tom Bainesa, , Guillaume Zoppib, Leon Bowenc, Thomas P.Shalveya, Silvia Mariottia, Ken Durosea, Jonathan D. Majora , Incorporation of CdSe layers into CdTe thin film solar cells(2018) , . XVI.A.Romeo, D.L. Bätzner, H. Zogg and A.N. Tiwari , Potential of CdTe thin film solar cells for space applications (2001) , pp 2183-2186 .

XVII.B.L. Williams , J.D. Major , L. Bowen , L. Phillips , G. Zoppi , I. Forbes , K. Durose , Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils(2014) , .

XVIII.A. J. Clayton, V. Di Carlo, S. J. C. Irvine, G. Kartopu, V. Barrioz and D. A. Lamb, Investigation into ultrathin CdTe solar cell Voc using SCAPS modelling(2014) , DOI 10.1179/1433075X14Y. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 59 .

XIX.Isaiah O. Oladeji, Lee Chow , Synthesis and processing of CdS/ZnS multilayer films for solar cell application(2005) , doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2004.08.114 , pp.-77–83 .

XX.H.TASSOULT and A.BOULOUFA , The performance of SnO2/CdS/CdTe type solar cell under influence of CdS buffer layer thickness and series resistance RS , ISBN: 978-161804-223-1 .

XXI.M. A. Matin, Nowshad Amin Azami Zaharim And Kamaruzzaman Sopian A Study Towards The Possibility Of Ultra Thin Cds/Cdte High Efficiency Solar Cells From Numerical Analysis(2010), Issn: 1790-5079, Issue 8, Volume 6.

XXII.BO ZHANGa,b, YUN TIANb, JIANXIN ZHANGa,b, WEI CAIa, The FTIR studies on the structural and electrical properties of SnO2:F films as a function of hydrofluoric acid concentration (2010), Optoelectronics and advanced materials-Rapid Communicatiions, Vol-4 , No-8, P:1152-1162.

[XXIII]Nuruzzaman Nor , I van P. Parkin , Halide doping effects on transparentconducting oxides found by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (2012),

[XXIV]Z.Q.Ma1 and B.He2, TCO-SI Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices (2011) ,ISBN:987-953-307-570-9 , devices.

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[XXVI] J.D. Majora, ⁎, L.J. Phillipsa, M. Al Turkestanib, L. Bowenc, T.J. Whittlesa,V.R. Dhanaka, K. Durosea , P3HT as a pinhole blocking back contact for CdTe thin film solar cells(2017), ,pp.1-10 .[XXVII] Streetman Ben G.,Solid State ElectronicDevice, Prentice-hall, EasternEconomy Edition(1982) , 2nd Edition, Chapter 5, Junctions, pp. 140-145

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Corrosion Reduction for Brass Alloy by Using Different Nano-Coated Techniques


Hussein Y. Mahmood, Khalid A. Sukkar, Wasan K. Mikhelf



In the present investigation the corrosion resistance of brass tubes heat exchanger that used in Midland Refineries Company-Iraq were improved dramatically by using nanocoating of brass substrate. two nanocoating techniques were used to coat the brass alloy (B-111): Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) and Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD). Copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) metals were selected to be the coating material for the brass substrate. The nanocoating specifications and characterization of surface have been tested by using many measuring tests; SEM, AFM, and XRD. From AFM results, it was observed that the nanocoated particle dimeter of brass substrates in the range of (60 - 90) nm. From XRD results it was concluded that the PLD technique represents the best nanocoating process for the brass and it was showed high crystalline thin films. On the other hand, the SEM results showed that the PLD techniques with Copper nanocoating is good comparison with other PVD technique and aluminum nanocoating material. After identifying the characterization of brass substrate, it was studying the corrosion potential, open circuit potential, and corrosion current density that used to estimate the corrosion rates in sodium chloride solution. The results indicated the minimum weight loss with copper nanocoating with PLD technique was 4.48*10-2 mm/year.


corrosion;Nano-coating, characterization,


I.R.Joseph Rathish, R.Dorothy,R.M.Joany , M.Pandiarajan and Susai Rajendran, ‖Corrosion resistance of nanoparticle incorporated nano coating ― Eur. chem. Bull., 2(12), 965-970 (2013)

II.Singh, R. Coating for Corrosion Prevention. In Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures: Cathodic Protection andHigh Efficiency Coating; Gulf Professional Publishing: Waltham, MA, USA, 2014; pp. 115–129.

III.Samimiã, A.; Zarinabadi, S. An Analysis of Polyethylene Coating Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines.J. Am. Sci. 2011, 7, 1032–1036.

IV.Van Velson, N.; Flannery, M. Performance Life Testing of a Nanoscale Coating for Erosion and CorrosionProtection in Copper Microchannel Coolers.In Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Intersociety Conferenceon Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Las Vegas, NV, USA,31 May–3 June 2016; pp. 662–669.

V.Saji, V.S. The impact of nanotechnology on reducing corrosion cost. In Corrosion Protection and Control UsingNanomaterials; Saji, V.S., Cook, R., Eds.;Woodhead Publishing Limited: Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2012; pp. 3–15,ISBN 9781845699499.

VI.Mingming, Y.; Yedong, H.; Ying, Z.; Quixia, Y. Al2O3-Y2O3 Nano-and Micro-composite coatings onFe-9Cr-Mo. J. Rare Earth 2006, 24, 587–590.

VII.Dariva, C.G.; Galio, A.F. Corrosion Inhibitors—Principles, Mechanisms and Applications. In Developments inCorrosion Protection; IntechOpen Limited: London, UK, 2014; p. 16, ISBN 978-953-51-1223-5.

VIII.Towler, G.P. and Sinnot, R. (2012). Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design.Elsevier.

IX.Chang K.; Tiny is Beautiful, Translating―Nano‖into Practical, The New York Times (2005).

X.B. D. Hall, D. Zanchet and D. Ugarte ; Estimating nanoparticle size from diffraction measurements , Journal of Applied Crystallography, Volume 33, Part 6 (December 2000).

XI.Ibrahim, Hassan Al-Haj, ―Fouling in heat exchangers‖, MATLAB –A Fundamental Tool for Scientific Computing and Engineering Applications, Vol. 3,, (2012).

XII.Mostafa, M. A., ―Fouling of Heat Transfer Surfaces‖, Mansoura University, Faculty of Engineering, Mech. Power Eng. Dept., University Campus STeP (2011).

XIII.Memon Samina, Abdul Karim And A. Venka Tachalam ―Corrosion Study of Iron and Copper Metals and Brass Alloy in Different Medium‖ ISSN: 0973-4945; CODEN ECJHAO E-Journal of Chemistry, 8(S1), S344-S348 (2011)

XIV.Clark, F.M. and Raab, E.L. ―The Detection of Corrosive Sulfur Compounds in Mineral Transformer Oil‖, ASTM Publication, Presented at the Society Meeting, June 21-25, 1948, pp. 1201-1210.

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XVI.―ASTM D 1275: Standard Test Method for Corrosive Sulfur in Electrical Insulating Oils‖ in Electrical Insulating Liquids and Gases; Electrical Protective Equipment, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 10.03, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 2001.

XVII.Ma, Minglin and Hill, Randal M, ―Superhydrophobic surfaces‖, Curr. Opin. Colloid Inter. Sci. Vol. 11, Iss. 4, P. 193-202, (2006).

XVIII.Quéré, David, ‖Non-sticking drops‖ Rep. Prog. Phy.,Vol. 68,Num.11,(2005).

XIX.Roach, P. , Neil J. Shirtcliffe and Michael I. Newton, ‖Progress in superhydrophobic surface development‖ Soft Matter Iss. 2, (2008).

XX.Taniguchi, N., ―On the Basic Concept of ‘Nano-Technology‖, Proc. Intl. Conf. Prod. Eng. Tokyo, Part II, Japan Society of Precision Engineering, (1974).

XXI.Mattox, D.M. ―Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition Processing‖, USA,: 2ed Elsevier: Burlington,VT, (2010).

XXII.Peláez and Vargas, ―Evaluation dela toxicidad in vitro, a dherenciay nanotopografía derecubrimientos aplicados pore sol-gel para implantes metálicos‖, Master’s Thesis, National University of Colombia, Medellin, Colombia, (2005).

XXIII.Bach, Hans, Krause ―Thin Films on Glass‖ Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg ISSN,1431-7907, ISBN, 978-3-662-03475-0,(2003).

XXIV.Chang K.; Tiny is Beautiful, Translating―Nano‖into Practical, The New York Times (2005).

XXV.B. D. Hall, D. Zanchet and D. Ugarte ; Estimating nanoparticle size from diffraction measurements , Journal of Applied Crystallography, Volume 33, Part 6 (December 2000)

XXVI.Sami A. AJEEL, Abdulkareem M. ALI, Zamen KARM,‖ Titanium oxide nanotube arrays used in implant materials‖ U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series B, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, 2014

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Dual Energy “X Ray” Image Enhancement Using Hybrid Approach


Muhammad Fahad, Sheeraz Ahmed, Burhan Ullah, Malik Taimur Ali, Said Khalid Shah, Najeeb Ullah, Mehr-e-Munir



“X Ray” images upgrade is acting as an imperative job in the location of unstable or illicit items. “X Ray” image review capacity is as yet a testing work. To decide the wrongs of foundation commotion, fogginess, and acuity in corrupted “X Ray” pictures, the story and productive upgrade approach dependent on X ray photo synthesis utilizing the proposed approach is discrete wavelet transform in this research. Today, “X Ray” innovation is generally utilized for stuff review. Be that as it may, “X Ray” images are as yet boisterous, obscure and with low differentiation. The “X Ray” image commotion impacts the edges of the item and force estimations of pixels which make vulnerability for the framework to segregate objects and for the administrator in basic leadership process also. Brimful endeavors are being made in this examination for improving component upgrade particularly the decrease of foundation commotion. By utilizing Discrete Wavelet Transform and Region of Interest (ROI) Enhancement Approach, the examination work gets acceptable outcomes. The proposed Wavelet based methodology is converged with ROI approach to deal with accomplishes capable outcomes. We cannot merge the two different sizes “X Ray” pictures for post handling. ROI approach is utilized to upgrade the particular area in dual energy “X Ray” images. Our proposed structure extremely helps the review framework while segregating threats and the entire screening process as is clear from the analysis results.


Region of Interest,X-Ray Images,Delay,Throughput,Stability period,Discrete Wavelet Transform,


I.B. J. Tao, J. R. Wang, and J. P. Xu, “Study on image fusion based on different fusion rules of wavelet transform,”

II.G. Q. Tao, Q. D. Li, and G. H. Lu, “Study on image fusion based on different fusion rules of wavelet transform,”

III.Infrared and Laser Engineering (China), vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 173-176, 2003.

IV.Infrared Technology (China), vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 431-434, 2006.

V.Ionela, N.A., & Monica, B. (2010). Satellite image improvement using phase information and wavelet transform. 8th International Conference on Communications (COMM), Bucharest, 137-140. doi: 10.1109/ICCOMM.2010.5509090. VI.Khan, S. U., & Wang, Y. C. (2012). An image enhancement technique of “X Ray” carry-on luggage for detection of contraband/illicit Object(s). International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), 9(1).

VII.Kuan, D.T., Sawchuk, A.A., Strand, T.C., and Chavel, P. (1985). IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. March, Intel., 7, 653-665.

VIII.L. Wang, J. Lu, Y. Li, T. Yahagi, and T. Okamoto, “Noise reduction using wavelet with application to medical X- ray image,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT2005), Hong Kong, 2005, pp. 33-38.

IX.Lili, P., Yaohong, Z., Haibo, L. (2010). Application of wavelet-based image fusion in image enhancement. 3rd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 2, 649-653.

X.M. Sakata and K. Ogawa, “Noise reduction and contrast enhancement for small-dose “X Ray” images in wavelet domain,” in 2009 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (NSS/MIC), Orlando, FL, 2009, pp. 2924-2929. XI.P. E. Ng and K. K. Ma, “A switching median filter with boundary discriminative noise detection for extremely corrupted images,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1506-1516, 2006.

XII.Ping, H., Xiu-Ping, H., Si-yuan, J., & Ren-biao, W. (2008). An efficient enhancement technique of “X Ray” carry-on luggage images. 9th International Conference on Signal Processing, Beijing, 1170-1173. doi: 0.1109/ICOSP.2008.4697338. XIII.R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002, pp. 88-94.

XIV.S. U. Khan, Y. C. Wang, and S. S. Chai, “A novel noise removal technique of “X Ray” carry-on luggage for detection of contraband/illicit object(s),” International Journal of Engineering and Advance Technology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 94-99,2013. XV.Salve, S. M., & Chakkarwar, V. A. (2013). Classification of mammographic images using gabor wavelet and discrete wavelet transform. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE), 2(5).

XVI.Z. Zhang and R. S. Blum, “A categorization of multiscale-decomposition-based image fusion schemes with a performance study for a digital camera application,” Proceeding of IEEE, vol. 87, no. 8, pp. 1315-1326, 1999.

XVII.ZhiYu, C., Zheng, Y., Abidi, B. R., Page, D. L., & Abidi,M. A. (2005). A combinational approach to the fusion, de- noising, and enhancement of dual-energy “X Ray” luggage images. IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, 2-2, IEEE.

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A Comprehensive Explanatory Derivation from an Equation of the Special Theory of Relativity; Doppler Effect is a Property of Space – Time


Prasenjit Debnath



Einstein was pioneer in his work of the theory of special relativity and the theory of general relativity. This paper took a famous equation from the theory of special relativity to have a comprehensive explanatory derivation from the equation of the theory of special relativity. This paper also explains why there is always constancy of the speed of light, the universal speed limit of the Universe, disregard of movement in or away of source that transmits light and the movement in or away of body that receives light. This paper also shows that Doppler Effect is a property of space – time. The Doppler Effect can explain why there is the constancy in the speed of light.


The theory of special relativity,the theory of general relativity,the space – time,Doppler Effect, the speed of light–the Universal speed limit of the Universe,


I.Stephen Hawking, “The Beginning of Time”, A Lecture.

II.Roger Penrose, “Cycles of Time”, Vintage Books, London, pp. 50-56.

III.Stephen Hawking, “A Briefer History of Time”, Bantam Books, London, pp. 1-49.

IV.Stephen Hawking, “Black holes and Baby Universes and other essays”, Bantam Press, London 2013, ISBN 978-0-553-40663-4.

V.Stephen Hawking, “The Grand Design”, Bantam Books, London 2011

VI.Stephen Hawking, “A Brief History of Time”, Bantam Books, London 2011, pp. 156-157. ISBN-978-0-553-10953-5

VII.Stephen Hawking, “The Universe in a Nutshell”, Bantam Press, London 2013, pp. 58-61, 63, 82-85, 90-94, 99, 196. ISBN 0-553-80202-XVIII.Stephen Hawking, “A stubbornly persistent illusion-The essential scientific works of Albert Einstein”, Running Press Book Publishers, Philadelphia, London 2011.

IX.Stephen Hawking, “Stephen Hawking’s Universe: Strange Stuff Explained”, PBS site on imaginary time.

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Behaviour of Full Scale Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM)


Fawwad Masood, Asad-ur-Rehman Khan



With increase in use of fibres for strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams, Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) is becoming a popular choice among the researchers and scientists. While Carbon, glass and PBO fibers have shown encouraging results for structural strengthening, use of basalt fibres have not been much explored for strengthening other than masonry. Limited small-scale data exists for the use of basalt fibres in TRM strengthening but data for full scale beams is scarce. This paper presents an experimental study of six full scale RC beams tested with a varying shear span to depth (a/d) ratio 3 through 6, where three beams served as control beams for various a/d ratios while the remaining three beams were strengthened with TRM using basalt fibres. TRM was provided at the tension face of the beams for strengthening in flexure along with U-shaped wraps. Results showed that TRM using basalt fibres is effective in improving the performance of RC beams in terms of serviceability, crack and deflection control, load carrying capacity, initial and post cracking stiffness, and ductility.


Reinforced concrete,Full scale beams, Strengthening,Textile Reinforced Mortar, Load-Deflection,Performance,


I.ACI. “Guide to design and construction of externally bonded fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) systems for repair and strengthening concrete and masonry structures”,2013.

II.ACI Committee %J American Concrete Institute, F. H., MI. (2014). 318, “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318–14) and Commentary (ACI 318R–14). 519”,2014.

III.Al-Salloum, Y. A., Siddiqui, N. A., Elsanadedy, H. M., Abadel, A. A., & Aqel, “Textile-reinforced mortar versus FRP as strengthening material for seismically deficient RC beam-column joints”,Journal of Composites for Construction15(6), 920-933, 2011.

IV.Aljazaeri, Z. R., Janke, M. A., & Myers, “A novel and effective anchorage system for enhancing the flexural capacity of RCbeams strengthened with FRCMcomposites”,Composite Structures, 2018.

V.Ayub, T., Khan, S. U., & Memon, F. Ahmed,(2014).”Mechanical characteristics of hardened concrete with different mineral admixtures: a review”,The Scientific World Journal,2014.

VI.Azam, R., & Soudki, “FRCM strengthening of shear-critical RC beams”,Journal of Composites for Construction,18(5), 04014012, 2014.

VII.Bencardino, F., Spadea, G., Swamy, “The problem of shear in RC beams strengthened with CFRP laminates”, Construcion Building Materials,21(11), 1997-2006, 2007.

VIII.Bisby, L., & Williams, B. J.,”An introduction to FRP strengthening of concrete structures”. 4, 1-39, ISIS Educational Module, 2014.

IX.Bournas, D. A., Lontou, P. V., Papanicolaou, C. G., T.Triantafillou, “Textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) versus FRP confinement in reinforced concrete columns”, ACI Structural Journal104(6), 740-748, 2007.

X.Brückner, A., Ortlepp, R., Curbach, “Textile reinforced concrete for strengthening in bending and shear”, Materials & Structures39(8), 741-748, 2006.

XI.Carloni, C., Subramaniam, K. V., Savoia, M., & Mazzotti, “Experimental determination of FRP–concrete cohesive interface properties under fatigue loading”. 94(4), Composite Structures, 1288-1296, 2012.

XII.D’Antino, T., Carloni, C., Sneed, L., & Pellegrino, “Matrix–fiber bond behavior in PBO FRCM composites: A fracture mechanics approach”, Engineering Fracture Mechanics,117, 94-111, 2014.

XIII.Escrig, C., Gil, L., Bernat-Maso, E., Puigvert, “Experimental and analytical study of reinforced concrete beams shear strengthened with different types of textile-reinforced mortar”, Construction and Building Materials,83, 248-260, 2015.

XIV.Fib builletin:”Externally BondedFRPReinforcement for RC Structures”. (14), 51-58., 2001.

XV.Jiang, C., Fan, K., Wu, F., Chen, “Experimental study on the mechanical properties and microstructure of chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete”, Materials & Design58, 187-193, 2014.

XVI.Khan, A., F.Masood, “Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams With Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) in Flexure”,8th International Civil Engineering Congress (ICEC-2016), Karachi, Pakistan, 2016.

XVII.Khan, A., F.Masood, “Strengthening of shear deficient reinforced concrete beams with textile reinforced mortar (TRM)”.8th international conference on fibre-reinforced (FRP) composites in civil engineering, Hong Kong, China, 2016.

XVIII.Loreto, G., Babaeidarabad, S., Leardini, L., & Nanni, “RC beams shear-strengthened with fabric-reinforced-cementitious-matrix (FRCM) composite”, International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering7(4), 341-352, 2015.

XIX.Ma, G., G.Li, “Experimental study of the seismic behavior of predamaged reinforced-concrete columns retrofitted with basalt fiber–reinforced polymer”, Journal of Composites for Construction,19(6), 04015016, 2015.

XX.Ombres, L., Mancuso, N., Mazzuca, S., & Verre, “Bond between Carbon Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix and Masonry Substrate”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,31(1), 04018356, 2018.

XXI.Ombres, Luciano, “Structural performances of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in shear with a cement based fiber composite material”, Composite Structures,122, 316-329,2015.

XXII.Razaqpur, A. G., Shedid, M., & Isgor, Burkan, “Shear strength of fiber-reinforced polymer reinforced concrete beams subject to unsymmetric loading”, Journal of Composites for Construction,15(4), 500-512, 2010.

XXIII.Rostam, S., Bakker, R., Beeby, A., van Nieuwenburg, D., Schiessl, P., L.Sentler, “Durable Concrete Structures-CEB Design Guide”,Bulletin d’Information(182), 1992 J. Mech. Cont.& Math. Sci., Vol.-14, No.-3, May-June(2019) pp 65-82Copyright reserved © J. Mech. Cont.& Math. Sci.Fawwad Masoodet al.82.

XXIV.Sneed, L., D’Antino, T., Carloni, C., Pellegrino, C., “A comparison of the bond behavior of PBO-FRCM composites determined by double-lap and single-lap shear tests”,Cement and Concrete Composites,64, 37-48, 2015.
XXV.Spadea, G., Bencardino, F., Swamy, R. J. M., “Optimizing the performance characteristics of beams strengthened with bonded CFRP laminates”, Materials and Structures,33(2), 119-126, 2000.
XXVI.Tetta, Z. C., Koutas, L. N., & Bournas, D., “Textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) versus fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) in shear strengthening of concrete beams”, Composites Part B: Engineering, 77, 338-348, 2015.
XXVII.Tetta, Z. C., Koutas, L. N., & Bournas, D., “Shear strengthening of full-scale RC T-beams using textile-reinforced mortar and textile-based anchors”,Composites Part B: Engineering,95, 225-239, 2016.
XXVIII.Trapko, T., Urbańska, D., & Kamiński, M., “Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with PBO-FRCM composites”, Composites Part B: Engineering,80, 63-72, 2015.
XXIX.Triantafillou, T. C., Papanicolaou, C. G., Zissimopoulos, P., & Laourdekis, T., “Concrete confinement with textile-reinforced mortar jackets”, ACI Materials Jourmal,103(1), 28, 2006.
XXX.Triantafillou, T. C., Papanicolaou, C, “Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete members with textile reinforced mortar (TRM) jackets”, Materials & Structures,39(1), 93-103,2016.
XXXI.Triantafillou, T., “Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using epoxy-bonded FRP composites”, ACI Structural Jourmal, 95, 107-115, 1998.
XXXII.Tzoura, E., Triantafillou, T. J. M., & Structures. (2016). “Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete T-beams under cyclic loading with TRM or FRP jackets”, Materials & Structures,49(1-2), 17-28, 2016.
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Mathematical, Numerical and Experimental investigation of low energy impact on Glass Fiber Reinforeced Aluminum Laminates


Alireza Sedaghat, Majid Alitavoli, Abolfazl Darvizeh, Reza Ansari Khalkhali



GLARE belongs to a family of fiber-metal laminates composed of alternate layers of prefabricated reinforced composites with unidimensional glass fibers and Aluminum 2024 sheets first invented for aeronautical applications.The dynamic response of structures, which are subjected to impact loading can be studied by employing equivalent mechanical systems consisting of springs and masses. It is then possible to derive the differential equations of motion using the equilibrium of forces, which are applied on the masses. In this research, a mathematical model of low velocity impact loading on Glass Fiber Reinforeced Aluninum Laminates was derived and simulated , as well as the dynamic effect of low energy impact with the simulation of finite element method (FEM) of on 4 types of GLARE were performed. Low velocity impact tests were conducted with drop-weight impact tower and the = central plate’s deflection, force- time history, velocity- time history and energy-time diagrams obtained from the mathematical model and simulation of finite element analisys were compared with the experimental data obtained from the drop weight impact tower. The comparison of the results shows that the results of simulation of finite element are 4% and the results of the 8% mathematical model differ with experimental results and mathemathical model can use for low velocity impact modelings.


Glare, low velocity impact,mathematical model,experimental tests,finite element model,


I.A.Vlot, Glare-History of the Development of a New Aircraft Material, 1st edition, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001.

II.Dadej K, Surowska B, Bieniaś J. Isostrain elastoplastic model for prediction of static strength and fatigue life of fiber metal laminates,International Journal of Fatigue 2018; doi:, 2018.

III.F. Bagnoli, M. Bernabei, D. Figueroa-Gordon, P. E. Irving, The response of………aluminum/GLARE hybrid materials to impact and to in-plane fatigue, Material Science and Engineering A, Vol,523,118–124, 2009.

IV.G. Caprino, G. Spataro and S. Del Luongo, Low-velocityimpact behavior of fiber glassaluminum laminates, Composites.Part A35,605–616, 2004.V.G. Caprino,

V. Lopresto and P. Iaccarino, A simple mechanistic model to predict macroscopic response of fireglass -aluminum laminates under low-velocity impact, Composites.Part A38,290–300, 2007.

VI.G. Wu, The Impact Properties and Damage Tolerance of Bidirectionally Reinforced Fiber Metal laminates, Journal of Material Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No3,948–957, 2005.

VII.K. Preusch, P. Linde, H. De Boer, C. Carmone, Modelling of fiber metal laminates shells applied to the inter rivet buckling phenomenon, European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS), 115-132, 2004.

VIII.Lapczyk, J.A. Hurtado, Progressive damagemodeling in fiber-reinforced materials”. Composites: Part A, Vol. 38,2333–2341, 2007.

IX.Li H, Xu Y, Hua X, Liu C, Tao J. Bending failure mechanism and flexural properties of GLARE laminates with different stacking sequences, Composite Structures, doi: j.compstruct.12, 68-77, 2017.

X.M. Hoo Fatt, C. Lin, D. Revilock and D. Hopkins, Ballistic impact of GLARE fiber-metal laminates, Composite Structure, 14,73–88, 2003.

XI.P. Linde, J. Pleitner, H. De Boer, C. Carmone, Modelling and simulation of fiber metal laminates, Abaqus User’s Conference, 2004.

XII.Park S.Y, Choi W.J, Choi C.H, Choi H.S. Effect of drilling parameters on hole quality and delamination of hybrid GLARE laminate, Composite Structures,; doi:, 2017.

XIII.R.C Alderliesten. Fatigue ra k propagation and delamination growth in the glare, Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft,2005.

XIV.S. Hyoungseock, J. Hundley, H.T. Hahn, J. Yang , Numerical Simulation of Glass-Fibre Reinforced Aluminum Laminates withDiverse Impact Damage, AIAA Journal, Vol. 48, No. 3,676-687, 2010.

XV.T.J. Vries Blunt and sharp notch behavior of glare laminates. Ph.D Dissertation, Delft..University Press, 2001.

XVI.Y. Lui, B. Liaw, Effects of constituents and lay-up configuration on drop-weight tests of fiber-metal laminates, Applied Composite Materials, Vol. 17, 43–62, 2010.

XVII.Zarei H, Brugo T, Belcari J, Bisadi H, Minak G, Zucchelli A. Low velocity impact damage assessment of GLARE fiber-metal laminates interleaved by Nylon 6,6 nanofiber mats. Composite Structures.167,123–131, 2017.

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Lexical Approach: Overcoming Vague Skills Procedure and Early Mathematical Terminology based on the Prosodic Semantic Theory


Anida Sarudin, Raja Noor Farah Azura Raja Ma’amor Shah, Husna Faredza Mohamed Redzwan, Zulkifli Osman, Wan Mazlini Othman, Intan Safinas Mohd Ariff Albakri



This study aims to identify and examine early mathematical concepts based on mathematical terminology and early mathematical skills among children and teachers of the National Child Development Research Centre (NCDRC). This study also investigates the pedagogical practices by the teachers on how to overcome vague terminology and children skills procedure in the teaching and learning of early mathematics. The study focuses on the teaching and learning of early Mathematics topics such as match, gather, separate and compare. Eight teacher participants are involved in 4 selected PERMATA Anak Negara Centres: Bercham, Besout 1, Teluk Intan and Sg. Siput. The findings have revealed that the children are given the opportunities to explain, defend, conclude, predict and suit their ways of understanding the mathematical concepts related to the chosen topics: match, gather, separate and compare. The children are also encouraged to show their understanding through various different ways including the critical thinking skills. As a result, this study has produced the Lexical Kit based on the Prosodic Semantic Theory for the learning and early Mathematics facilitation for pre-schools in Malaysia thus help teachers to make children understand the terminology concepts and early mathematical procedures clearly.


Children,lexical approach,mathematics terminology,procedure skills,PERMATA Anak Negara Centre,Prosodic Semantic,


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III. Asmah Haji Omar. (1986). Bahasa dan alam pemikiran Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

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V.Aunola, K. & Nurmi, J.E. (2004). Maternal affection moderates the impact of psychological control on a child’s mathematical performance. Journal of developmental psychology, 40, 965-978.

VI.Azizi Hj. Yahaya & Elanggovan. (2010). Kepentingan kefahaman konsep dalam matematik. Jurnal pendidik dan pendidikan, 14(2), 22-33.

VII.Barrouillet, P., Fayol, M. & Lathuliere, E. (1998). Selecting between competitors in multiplication tasks: An explanation of the errors produced by adolescents with learning disabilities. International journal of behavioral development, 21, 253-275.

VIII.Bryant, P. & Nunes, T. (2002). Learning and teaching mathematics: An international perspective. United Kingdom: Psychology Press Ltd.

IX.David C. Geary, Carmen O. Hamson & Mary, K. Hoard. (2000). Numerical and arithmetical cognition: A longitudinal study of process and concept deficits in children with learning disability. Journal of experimental child psychology, 77(2), 236-263.

X.Desoete, A., Stock, P., Schepens, A., Baeyens, D. & Roeyers, H. (2009). Classification, seriation and counting in grades 1,2 and 3 as two-year longitudinal predictors for low achieving in numerical facility and arithmetical achievement? Journal of psychoeducational assessment, 27(3), 252-264.

XI. Fuson, K. C. (1982). An analysis of the counting-on solution procedure in addition. Journal for research in mathematics education, 14(1), 67-81.

XII.Jordan, N. C., Kaplan, D., Locuniak, M. & Ramineni, C. (2007). Predicting first-grade math achievement from developmental number sense. Learning disabilities research & practice, 22(1), 36-46.

XIII.Kilpatrick, J. (1992). A history of research in mathematics education. Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning. New York: Macmillan Publishing.

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XVII.Siegler, R. S. & Shrager, J. (1984). Strategy choice in addition and subtraction: How do children know what to do? Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

XVIII.Sophian, C. (1998). A developmental perspective on children’s counting. The development of mathematical skills. United Kingdom: Psychology Press Ltd.

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An Implementation of Area Optimized Low Power MAC


P. Ashok Babu



The objective of the paper is to develop an Area optimized Low power digital circuit for MAC (Multiply and Accumulate) operation. We developed implementations of the MAC to avoid using multipliers and prefer to use the combinational circuits like multiplexers. We analyze all the MAC digital circuits to find out the best digital circuit which consumes minimum area and power. MAC is basic building block of many Digital Signal Processing Applications like Noise Cancellation Circuits, Speech Processing, Image Processing, Video Processing, Artificial Neural Networks etc. We also give some suggestions on the system level solutions based on the MAC. The digital circuit which is developed by us will be compatible to FPGAs, as it is developed by the industry standard Synthesis tool i.e. Synopsys Synlipy pro synthesis tool. The MAC which we are developing can be placed in the FPGA Fabric and it can be interfaced to any processors like Cortex M3, Cortex M0, 805 1etc. The overall throughput decreases due high latency and increase in the processing time. So, all the MAC operations must be performed in the hardware by the MAC block developed by us as it is low power, low area and fast hardware.


Digital Signl Processing,MAC,


I.Abdelgawad, A. (2013).Low power multiply accumulate unit (MAC) for future Wireless Sensor Networks. 2013 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium Proceedings.doi:10.1109/sas.2013.6493571.

II.Comparison among Different Adders Prof. Rashmi Rahul Kulkarni, IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSR-JVSP) Volume 5, Issue 6, Ver. I (Nov -Dec. 2015), PP 01-06 e-ISSN: 2319 –4200, p-ISSN No. : 2319 –4197

III.Jayanthi, A. N., &Ravichandran, C. S. (2013).Comparison of performance of high speed VLSI adders. 2013 International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Technology (ICCTET).doi:10.1109/icctet.2013.6675920

IV.Kapse, V., Jain, A., &Pattanaik, M. (2016).Design of anArea Efficient and Low Power MAC Unit.Smart Trends in Information Technology and Computer Communications, 276–284.doi:10.1007/978-981-10-3433-6_33.

V.Ramadass, Uma &Vijayan, Vidya&Mohanapriya, M & Paul, Sharon. (2012). Area, Delay and Power Comparison of Adder Topologies.International Journal of VLSI Design & Communication Systems.

VI.Shah, S., Al-Khalili, A. J., & Al-Khalili, D. (n.d.). Comparison of 32-bit multipliers for various performance measures.ICM 2000.Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Microelectronics. (IEEE Cat. No.00EX453). doi:10.1109/icm.2000.916418V., Jain, A., &Pattanaik, M. (2016).Design of anArea Efficient and Low Power MAC Unit.Smart Trends in Information Technology and Computer Communications, 276–284.doi:10.1007/978-981-10-3433-6_33.

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An Efficient Approach for Secured E-Health Cloud System Using Identity Based Cryptography Techniques in Cloud Computing Environment


Shikha Mittal, Paramjeet Singh, Rahul Malhotra



Nowadays, cloud computing is an interesting research area among the researchers. It is an internet-based pool of heterogeneous resources. Cloud environment is very much reliable to make availability of resources when required to online users. Reliable computing services can be handled without any own infrastructures, so it would be considered as an alternate cost effective technique. Most of the organizations utilized the technique of cloud computing to host their applications. The service of the health care unit is the most essential service for the people. There is a necessity to store the sensitive information related to the patient’s medical history in a secure way. Therefore, the research and development in the Personal Health records and Electronic Health records is negligible area. Thus the most robust encryption and decryption should be encountered. One among the advanced technology in cloud computing is the maintenance of Electronic Health Records (EHR). The main objective of this paper is to propose and implement a methodology to exchange the health information about a particular person in a secured cloud environment. The medical information about a patient from distributed manner is also maintained in EHR by cloud environment. The stored information of the user provides the facility of collecting, sharing, exchanging and organizing that information through users. Therefore, an efficient approach for securing e-health cloud system using identity based cryptography techniques is presented in this research study.


Cloud computing,EHR,Data Privacy,Key Management,


I.Aljawarneh SA & Yassein MOB (2016), ‘A Conceptual Security Framework for Cloud Computing Issues’, International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies (IJIIT), Vol. 12,No. 2, pp. 12-24.

II.Almorsy M, Grundy J & Müller I (2016), ‘An Analysisof the Cloud Computing Security Problem’, arXiv preprint arXiv:1609.01107.

III.Dhirender Singh, R.K. Banyal, Arvind Sharma, ‘Cloud Computing Research Issues, Challenges, and Future Directions’, Emerging Trends in Expert Applications and Security, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 841, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

IV.Fabian B, Ermakova T & Junghanns P (2015), ‘Collaborativeand Secure Sharing of Healthcare Data in Multi-Clouds’, Information Systems, Vol. 48, pp. 132-150.

V.Hu Y & Bai G (2014), ‘A Systematic Literature Review of Cloud Computing in e-Health’, arXiv preprint arXiv:1412.2494.

VI.Huang Q, Yue W, He Y & Yang Y(2018), ‘Secure Identity-Based Data Sharing and Profile Matching for Mobile Healthcare Social Networks in Cloud Computing’, IEEE Access, Vol. 6, pp. 36584-36594.

VII.Kalaiprasath R, Elankavi R & Udayakumar DR. (2017), ‘Cloud. Security and Compliance-A Semantic Approach in End to End Security’, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), Vol. 8,No.5.

VIII.Khan SS & Tuteja R (2015), ‘Security in Cloud Computing using Cryptographic Algorithms’, International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, Vol. 3,No. 1, pp. 148-155.

IX.Li J, Zhang Y, Chen X & Xiang Y(2018), ‘Secure Attribute-Based Data Sharing for Resource-Limited Users in Cloud Computing’, Computers & Security, Vol. 72, pp. 1-12.

X.Liang K, Liu JK, Wong DS & Susilo W (2014), ‘An efficient Cloud-Based Revocable Identity-Based Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme for Public Clouds Data Sharing’, European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, pp. 257-272.

XI.Luna J, Taha A, Trapero R &Suri N. (2017), ‘Quantitative Reasoning about Cloud Security Using Service Level Agreements’, IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, Vol. 5,No. 3, pp. 457-471.

XII.Ma (2016), ‘Identity-based Encryption with Outsourced Equality Test in Cloud Computing’, Information Sciences, Vol. 328, pp. 389-402.

XIII.Samarati P, Di Vimercati SDC, Murugesan S & Bojanova I (2016), ‘Cloud Security: Issues and Concerns’, Encyclopedia on Cloud Computing, pp. 207-219.

XIV.Shen Q, Liang X, Shen XS, Lin X & Luo HY (2014), ‘Exploiting Geo-Distributed Clouds foraE-Health Monitoring System with Minimum Service Delay and Privacy Preservation’, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Vol. 18,No. 2, pp. 430-439.

XV.Xhafa F, Li J, Zhao G, Li J, Chen X & Wong DS (2015), ‘Designing Cloud-Based Electronic Health Record System with Attribute-Based Encryption’, Multimedia Tools and Applications, Vol. 74, No. 10, pp. 3441-3458

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