Effects of very thin CdS window layer on CdTe solar cell


Koushik Sarkar,Seerin Jahan,Bhaskar Dutta,Sreelekha Chatterjee,Souvik Gain,Sreyashi Ghosh,






The work is based on the simulation fabrication of a CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell where the benefits and limitations of very thin window (CdS) layer have been investigated. The comparison between with and without pinhole effects for various CdS thicknesses have been analysed. We used highly resistive ZnO layer to overcome the pinhole problem that we had to face due to the consideration of very thin CdS layer to enhance the short circuit current (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) as well. In this paper, the work is mainly concerned on the degradation of the performance of the solar cell due to pinhole effect and its remedy to enhance the efficiency of the cell. . It has been noticed that, the inclusion of a ZnO layer has positive effect on the performance of cell. For very thin CdS layer(50 nm), we observed a poor efficiency of the cell (8.48%) due to pinhole effect. But after insertion of the ZnO layer we recovered the efficiency (19.64%) and overall performance of the cell appreciably.


I.Zhou Fang , Xiao Chen Wang , Hong Cai Wu , and Ce Zhou Zhao , Achievements and Challenges of CdS/CdTe Solar Cells(2011) , doi:10.1155/2011/297350 , Article ID 297350, 8 pages

II.Askari Mohammad Bagher, Mirzaei Mahmoud Abadi Vahid, Mirhabibi Mohsen , Types of Solar Cells and Application (2015), doi: 10.11648/j.ajop.20150305.17 , ISSN: 23308486 (Print); ISSN: 2330-8494 (Online) , pp. 94-113.

III.Shruti Sharma, Kamlesh Kumar Jain, Ashutosh Sharma, Solar Cells:In Research and Application –A Review(2015) , http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/msa.2015.612113 , pp: 1145-1155.

IV.F.V. Wald, Applications of CdTe:A review (1977), doi: 10.1051/rphysap:01977001202027700, pp.277-290.

V.R.K. Sharma , Kiran Jain, A.C. Rastogi , Growth of CdS and CdTe thin films for the fabrication of n-CdS/p-CdTe solar cell(2003) , doi:10.1016/S1567-1739(02)00201-8 , 199–204.

VI.Xuanzhi Wub, High-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells(2004), Doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2004.06.006, pp: 803-814.

VII.Farhana Anwar, Sajia Afrin, Sakin Sarwar Satter, Rafee Mahbub, Saeed Mahmud Ullah , Simulation and Performance Study of Nanowire CdS/CdTe Solar Cell(2017) , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH F.Anwar et al., Vol.7, No.2, 2017 .

VIII.Saurabh Kumar Pandey and Krishna Kumar , Device Modeling, Optimization and Analysis of CdTe solar cell(2016) , 978-1-5090-5384-1/16 ,295-299.

IX.UtpalMadhu ,Nillohit Mukherjee , Nil Ratan Bandyopadhyay & Anup Mondal , Properties of CdS and CdTe thin films deposited by an electrochemical technique(2007) , IPC Code-H01L 31/042 , PP.226-230 .

X.Arturo Morales-Acevedo, Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells: Research perspectives(2006) , doi:10.1016/j.solener.2005.10.008 .

XI.Saeed Salem Babkair, Charge Transport Mechanisms and Device Parameters of CdS/CdTe Solar Cells Fabricated by Thermal Evaporation(2010) , DOI: 10.4197 / Sci. 22-1.2 .

XII.Ameen M. Ali, K.S. Rahman, Lamya M. Ali, M. Akhtaruzzaman, K. Sopian, S. Radiman, N. Amin, A computational study on the energy bandgap engineering in performance enhancement of CdTe thin film solar cells Results in Physics (2017), PP:1066–1072

XXIII.Demtsu, S.H. & Sites, J.R. Effect of back-contact barrier on thin-film CdTe solar cells.(2006) Thin Solid Films. 510. 320-324. doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.01.004.

XIV.MURUGAIYA SRIDAR ILANGO and SHEELA K RAMASESHA , Novel patterning of CdS/CdTe thin film with back contacts for photovoltaic application(2018) , https://doi.org/10.1007/s12043-018-1542-0 .

XV.Tom Bainesa, , Guillaume Zoppib, Leon Bowenc, Thomas P.Shalveya, Silvia Mariottia, Ken Durosea, Jonathan D. Majora , Incorporation of CdSe layers into CdTe thin film solar cells(2018) , http://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.03.010 . XVI.A.Romeo, D.L. Bätzner, H. Zogg and A.N. Tiwari , Potential of CdTe thin film solar cells for space applications (2001) , pp 2183-2186 .

XVII.B.L. Williams , J.D. Major , L. Bowen , L. Phillips , G. Zoppi , I. Forbes , K. Durose , Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils(2014) , http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2014.01.017 .

XVIII.A. J. Clayton, V. Di Carlo, S. J. C. Irvine, G. Kartopu, V. Barrioz and D. A. Lamb, Investigation into ultrathin CdTe solar cell Voc using SCAPS modelling(2014) , DOI 10.1179/1433075X14Y. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 59 .

XIX.Isaiah O. Oladeji, Lee Chow , Synthesis and processing of CdS/ZnS multilayer films for solar cell application(2005) , doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2004.08.114 , pp.-77–83 .

XX.H.TASSOULT and A.BOULOUFA , The performance of SnO2/CdS/CdTe type solar cell under influence of CdS buffer layer thickness and series resistance RS , ISBN: 978-161804-223-1 .

XXI.M. A. Matin, Nowshad Amin Azami Zaharim And Kamaruzzaman Sopian A Study Towards The Possibility Of Ultra Thin Cds/Cdte High Efficiency Solar Cells From Numerical Analysis(2010), Issn: 1790-5079, Issue 8, Volume 6.

XXII.BO ZHANGa,b, YUN TIANb, JIANXIN ZHANGa,b, WEI CAIa, The FTIR studies on the structural and electrical properties of SnO2:F films as a function of hydrofluoric acid concentration (2010), Optoelectronics and advanced materials-Rapid Communicatiions, Vol-4 , No-8, P:1152-1162.

[XXIII]Nuruzzaman Nor , I van P. Parkin , Halide doping effects on transparentconducting oxides found by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (2012),http://dx.doi.org/.10.1016/j.tsf2012.10.110.

[XXIV]Z.Q.Ma1 and B.He2, TCO-SI Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices (2011) ,ISBN:987-953-307-570-9 , http://www.intechopen.com/books/solar-cells-thin-film-technologies/tco-si-based-heterojunction-photovoltaic devices.

[XXV] Hyeong Pil Kim, Mi Sun Ryu, Jun Ho Youn, Abd Rashid Bin Mohd Yusoff,and Jin Jang, , Photomask Effect In Organic Solar Cells With Zno Cathode Buffer Layerieee ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS (2012), VOL. 33, NO. 10.

[XXVI] J.D. Majora, ⁎, L.J. Phillipsa, M. Al Turkestanib, L. Bowenc, T.J. Whittlesa,V.R. Dhanaka, K. Durosea , P3HT as a pinhole blocking back contact for CdTe thin film solar cells(2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2017.07.005 ,pp.1-10 .[XXVII] Streetman Ben G.,Solid State ElectronicDevice, Prentice-hall, EasternEconomy Edition(1982) , 2nd Edition, Chapter 5, Junctions, pp. 140-145

Koushik Sarkar, Seerin Jahan, Bhaskar Dutta, Sreelekha Chatterjee Souvik Gain, Sreyashi Ghosh View Download