Journal Vol – 13 No -4, October 2018

Approximate Solution of Strongly Forced Nonlinear Vibrating Systems Which Vary With Time


Pinakee dey, Nasir Uddin, Md Asaduzzaman, Sanjay kumar saha, M. A. Sattar



Based on the combined work of extended Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolskii method and harmonic balance (HB) method an analytical technique is presented to determine approximate solutions of nonlinear differential systems whose coefficients change slowly and periodically with time. Furthermore, a non-autonomous case also investigated in which an external force acts in this system. Formulation as well as determination of the solution is systematic and easier than the existing procedures. The method is illustrated by suitable examples.


Asymptotic solution,Forced nonlinear oscillation, Varying coefficient,Unperturbed equation, KBM method, HB method,


I.C. W. Lim and B. S. Wu. “A new analytical approach to the Duffing-harmonic oscillator”, Physics Letters A, 311, 365-373, 2003.

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III.I. P. Popov. “A generalization of the Bogoliubov asymptotic method in the theory of nonlinear oscillations”, Dokl.Akad. Nauk SSSR 111, 308-310 (in Russian) 1956.

IV.J. C. Arya and G. N. Bojadziev, “Damped oscillating systems modeled by hyperbolic differential equations with slowly varying coefficients”, Acta Mechanica, 35, 215-221, 1980.

V.K.C. Roy and M. Shamsul Alam. “Effect of higher approximation of Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolskii solution and matched asymptotic solution of a differential system with slowly varying coefficients and damping near to a turning point”, Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, VAST, 26,182-192, 2004.

VI.M. Shamsul Alam,. “Unified Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolskii method for solving n-th order nonlinear system with slowly varying coefficients”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 256. 987-1002, 2003.

VII.N. N. Bogoliubov and Yu. Mitropolskii.“Asymptotic methods in the theory of nonlinear oscillations”, Gordan and Breach, New York, 1961.

VIII.N. N. Krylov and N. N. Bogoliubov, “Introduction to nonlinear mechanics”. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1947.

IX.R. E. Mickens. “Oscillation in Planar Dynamic Systems”, World Scientific, Singapore, (1996).

X.Yu. Mitropolskii. “Problems on asymptotic method of non-stationary oscillations” (in Russian), Izdat, Nauka, Moscow, 1964.

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Design and Comparison of PI and Back-Stepping Control for Single Phase Two-Stage Grid Connected PV System


Syed Qaiser Ahmad Shah, Khalid Mahmood, Syed Shafiq Ahmad Shah, Mehr-e-Munir, MuhammadAamir Aman



In grid connected two stage PV system some Control technique are applied to get maximum power point, voltage adjustment of boost converter , inverter voltage , DC link voltage control, grid current control, power factor improvement and reduction in total harmonics distortions. In this paper the two control techniques like back-stepping control and PI control are designed and their results are compared. The output behavior of the PV array is non-linear, there is a continuous change in output power, due to change in the temperature and change in irradiations. Due to this nonlinear behavior of PV the maximum power point is affected. To achieve maximum power point a special type of tracking system is used. In this paper the main objective like dc-link voltage control, grid current control, power factor improvement and reduction in total harmonics


Maximum power Point tracking (MPPT),Photovoltaic (PV),stepping Control (BSC), Total Harmonics Distortion (THD),


I.A. Mehazzem, and A. Khezzar “ Advanced BackStepping controller for the Induction generator using multi-scalar machine model for wind power purposes”. Renewable Energy journal, 18 February 2010.

II.C. Aouadi, A. Abouloifa, A. Hamdoun and Y. Boussairi, “Nonlinear controller design for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” 2015 3rd International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), Marrakech, 2015, pp. 1-5.

III.E. Mamarelis, G. Petrone, and G. Spagnuolo, “A two-steps algorithm improving the P&O steady state MPPT efficiency,” Applied Energy, 2014, vol. 113, p.p 414-421.

IV.G. Singh “Solar Power generation by PV (photovoltaic) Technology:A review” Volume 53, Pages1-13 1 May 2013

V.“M. Mirhosseini et al.”“Single-stage inverter-based grid-connected photovoltaic PV power plant with ride-through capability over different types of grid fault”.in Proc. Annu. Conf. IEEE Ind.Electron. Soc. (IECON), pp. 8008–8013, Nov. 2013.

VI.N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, “A technique for improving P&O MPPT performances of double-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no.11, pp. 4473-4482, Nov. 2009.

VII.S. V. Araújo, P. Zacharias, and R. Mallwitz, “Highly efficient single-phase transformer less inverters for grid-connected photovoltaic systems”, IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3118-3128,Sep. 2010.

VIII.S. Jain and V. Agarwal, “A single-stagegrid connected inverter topology for solar PV systems with maximum power point tracking,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 22, pp. 1928–1940, Sept. 2007.

IX.S. Chin, J. Gadson, and K. Nordstrom, “Maximum Power Point Tracker,” Tufts University Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2003, pp. 1-66

X.T. Prasad, V. Dixit and R. Kumar, “Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array Using ĊUK Converter” Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering. ISSN 2231-1297, Volume 4, Number 2 (2014), pp. 213-224.

XI.T. Kitano, M. Matsui, D. Xu, “A maximum power point tracking control scheme for PV system based on power equilibrium and its system design”, IEEJ Trans. Industry App., vol.121, no.12, 2001, pp.1263-1269.

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On the Suitability of Peak Shape Method for the Analysis of Thermoluminescence in Different Models


Sk Azharuddin, B Ghosh, S Ghosh, P.S.Majumdar



In the present paper we have adjudged the suitability of widely used Peak Shape method for determination of activation energy by considering computer generated thermoluminescence (TL) peaks obtained by using One Trap One Recombination (OTOR) model and Interactive Multi Trap System (IMTS) model. We have found that in both OTOR and IMTS models these methods fail when the trap occupancy approaches saturation. Finally we have considered the application of these methods to experimental TL peaks of  -irradiated Albite.


Thermoluminescence (TL),One Trap One Recombination (OTOR),InteractiveMulti Trap System (IMTS),ctivation energy,


I. A.Halperin and A. A Braner, Phys Rev117408(1960)

II.C.Christodoulides, J Phys D Appl Phys8 1501(1985)

III.C. M.Sunta,“UnrevllingThermoluminescence” (Springer) (2015)

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X.RChen and V Pagonis, “Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence, A simulationapproach” (Wiley) (2011)

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Automatic Control of Hypnosis in Propofol Anesthesia Administration based on ISTSMC


Muhammad Ilyas, Mehr-e-Munir, Jehanzeb Khan, Raja Ali Riaz



Propofol infusion in anesthesia administration requires continual adjustment in manual drug delivery system to regulate the hypnosis level. Such regulation of hypnosis in multi-tasking surgical scenario become more challenging and risky, directs to automation in anesthesia. This paper proposes a nonlinear control based on Integral Super-twisting Sliding Mode Control (ISTMSC) of Propofol administration. The patient model is derived using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics modelling based on clinical parameters, like age, height, and weight. The controller response is investigated to regulate the hypnosis level between 40 and 60 on Bispectral Index Scale (BIS). The plasma drug concentration in different compartments of the boy shows the metabolism of drugs within body. The hypnosis level is plotted for different patients shows the cortically activity of the brain required for general surgery.


Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamics mode,Sliding mode control,inear observer,sigmoid model,hypnosis,


I.A. A. Spence, “The lessons of CEPOD,” British journal of anaesthesia, vol. 60, pp. 753-754, 1988.

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general and regional anaesthesia,” Anesthesiology, 96(1):67-73, 2002.

III.C. Dong, “Closed Loop Controlled Total Intravenous Anaesthesia,” PhD Thesis, University of Plymouth, UK, 2003.

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VI.J. Klaske,K.V. Heusden, K. Soltesz, S. Khosravi, N. West, and G. A. Dumont, “Quantification of the variability in response to propofol administration in children,” 2013.

VII.J. P.Gauthier, Hammouri, H., & Othman, S.,1992. A simple observer for nonlinear systems applications to bioreactors., IEEE Transactions on automatic control,37(6): pp. 875-880

VIII.K. Soltesz, K. V. Heusden, G. A. Dumont, T. Hagglund, C. L. Petersen, N. West, J. M. Ansermino, “Closed-loop anaesthesia in children using a PID controller: A pilot study,” IFAC Conference on Advances in PID Control, Brescia, Italy, 2012.

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XI.K. Soltesz, G. A. Dumont, and J. M. Ansermino, “Assessing control performance in closed-loop anesthesia,” in Control & Automation (MED), 2013 21st Mediterranean Conference on, 2013, pp. 191-196

XII.K. Soltesz, K. van Heusden, M. Hast, J. M. Ansermino, and G. A. Dumont, “A Synthesis Method for Automatic Handling of Inter-patient Variability in Closed-loop Anesthesia,” American Control Conference, 2016.

XIII.K.Soltesz,“On automation in anaesthesia,” PhD Thesis, Lund University, Sweden, 2013.

XIV.K. Soltesz, G. A. Dumont, K. V. Heusden, T. Hägglund, and J. M. Ansermino,“Simulated mid-ranging control of propofol and remifentanil using EEG-measured hypnotic depth of anesthesia,” 51st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 356-361, 2012.

XV.K. V.Heusden,G.A.Dumont, K.Soltesz, C.L.Petersen, A.Umedlay, N.West and J.M.Ansermino, “Design and clinical evaluation of robust PID control of Propofol anaesthesia in children,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 22(2):491-501, 2014.

XVI.K. Soltesz, Kristian, et al, “Individualized PID control of depth of anesthesia based on patient model identification during the induction phase of anesthesia,” 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference, IEEE, 2011.

XVII.M. Janda, O. Simanski, J. Bajorat,B. Pohl, G. Noeldge Schomburg, and R. Hofmockel, “Clinical evaluation of a simultaneous closed‐loop anaesthesia control system for depth of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade,” Anaesthesia, vol. 66, pp. 1112-1120, 2011.

XVIII.M.Struys, T.De Smet, S.Greenwald, A.R.Absalom, S.Binge, E.P.Mortier, “Performance evaluation of two published closed-loop control systems using bispectral index monitoring: A simulation study,”Anaesthesiology, 100(3):640-647, 2004.

XIX.Schnider, Thomas W., Charles F. Minto, Pedro L. Gambus, Corina Andresen, David B. Goodale, Steven L. Shafer, and Elizabeth J. Youngs. “The influence of method of administration and covariates on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in adult volunteers.”Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 1170-1182, 1998.

XX.Slotine, J. J. E., & Li, W., Applied nonlinear control, Vol. 199, No. 1, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice hall.

XXI.S.A. Ajwad, J. Iqbal, R. U. Islam, A. Alsheikhy, A. Almeshal, and A. Mehmood, “Optimal and Robust Control of Multi DOF Robotic Manipulator: Design and Hardware Realization,”Cybernetics and Systems, Vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 77-93, 2018.

XXII.S. Bibian, “Automation in Clinical Anaesthesia,” PhD thesis, Universityof British Columbia, Canada, 2006.

XXIII.T.W. Schnider, C.F. Minto, P. Cambus, C. Andersen, D.B. Goodale, and S.L. Shafer, “The influence of method of administration and covariates on the pharmacokinetics of Propofol in adult volunteers,” Anaesthesiology, 88(5):1170-1182, 1998.

XXIV.T.A. Clarke, K.T.V. Grattan, N.E. Lindsey, “Laser based triangulation techniques in optical inspection of industrial structures” School of Engineering, City University, Northampton Square, London, ECIV OHB, England.

XXV.Y. Sawaguchi, E.Furutani, G. Shirakami, M. Araki, and K. Fukuda, “A model predictive sedation control system under total intravenous anesthesia,”IEEE EMBS Asian-Pacific Conferencin Biomedical Engineering,pp. 358-359,2003.

XXVI.W. Alam, A. Mehmood, K. Ali, U. Javaid, S/ Alharbi, and J. Iqbal, “Nonlinear Control of a Flexible Joint Robotic Manipulator with Experimental Validation,”Strojniški vestnik-Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 47-55,2018.

XXVII.Y. Sawaguchi, E. Furutani, G. Shirakami, M. Araki, and K. Fukuda, “A model predictive sedation control system under total intravenous anesthesia,”IEEE EMBS Asian-Pacific Conferencin Biomedical Engineering,pp. 358-359,2003

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Kink and Periodic Solutions to the Jimbo-Miwa Equation and the Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff Equation


Md. Dulal Hossain, Ummey Kulsum, Md. Khorshed Alam, M. Ali Akbar



In this article, we form the exact wave solutions of the Jimbo-Miwa equation and the Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation by applying the new generalized (G'/G)-expansion method. We explained the new generalized (G'/G)-expansion method to look for more general traveling wave solutions of the above mentioned equations. The traveling wave solutions attained by this method are in terms of hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions. The graphical representation of the obtained solutions is kink soliton, singular kink soliton, singular soliton and singular periodic solution. This method is very significant for extracting exact solutions of NLEEs which habitually occur in mathematical physics, engineering sciences and applied mathematics.


Exact traveling wave solutions,Jimbo-Miwa equation,Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation,new generalized(G1/G) -expansion method,


I.Abazari, R. and Abazari, R. “Hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational function solutions of Hirota-Ramani equation via -expansion method”. Math. Probl. Eng., 11, 424801 (2011)

II.Akbar, M. A. Ali, N. H. M. and Zayed, E. M. E. “A generalized and improved -expansion method for nonlinear evolution equations”. Math. Probl. Eng., pp: 22, Article ID 459879 (2012)

III.Akter, J. and Akbar, M. A. “Exact solutions to the Benney-Luke equation and the Phi-4 equations by using modified simple equation method”. Res. Phys., 5, 125-130 (2015)

IV.Ali A. Seadawy, A. R. and Lu, D. “Soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with the dual power law nonlinearity and resonant nonlinear Schrodinger equationand their modulation instability analysis”. Int. J. Light Electron Opt., (2017)

V.Bekir, A. Guner, O. Bhrawy, A. H. and Biswas, A. “Solving nonlinear fractional differential equations using exp-function and -expansion methods, Romanian”. J. Phys., 60, 360-378 (2015)

VI.Bhrawy, A. H. Abdelkawy, M. A. and Biswas, A. “Topological solitons and cnoidal waves to a few nonlinear wave equations in theoretical physics”. Indian J. Phys. 87(11), 1125-1131 (2013)

VII.Cole, J. D. “On a quasi-linear parabolic equation occurring in aerodynamics”. Quart. Appl. Math., 9, 225-236 (1951) VIII.Feng, J. Li, W. and Wan, Q. “Using -expansion method to seek traveling wave solution of Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation” Appl. Math. Comput., 217, 5860-5865 (2011)

IX.Gepreel, K. A. Nofal, T. A. and Alasmari, A. A. “Exact solutions for nonlinear integro-partial differential equations using the generalized Kudryashov method”. J. Egyptian Math. Soc. 25, 438-444 (2017)

X.Hafez, M. G. Alam, M. N. and Akbar, M. A. “Traveling wave solutions for some important coupled nonlinear physical models via the coupled Higgs equation and the Maccari system”. J. King Saud University-Sci., 27, 105-112 (2015) old 30

XI.Hopf, E. “The partial differential equation ” Commun. Pure. Appl. Math., 3, 201-230 (1950)

XII.Hossain, A. K. M. K.S. and Akbar, M.A. “Traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations via modified simple equation method”. Int. J. Appl. Math. Theor. Phys., 3, 20-25 (2017)

XIII.Hossain, A. K. M. K. S. Akbar, M. A. and Wazwaz, A. M. “Closed form solutions of complex wave equations via modified simple equation method”. Cogent Phys., 4, 1312751 (2017)

XIV.Hosseini, K. Ayati, Z. andAnsari, R. “New exact solutions of the Tzitzeica-type equations in nonlinear optics using the exp-function method”. J. Modern Opt., (2017)

XV.Huang, Q. M. Qao, Y. T. Jai, S. L. Wang, Y. L. and Deng, G. F. “Bilinear Backlund transformation, soliton and periodic wave solutions for a (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficientgeneralized shallow water wave equation” Nonlinear Dyn, 87, 2529-2540 (2017)

XVI.Irendaoreji, “New exact traveling wave solutions for the Kawahara and modified Kawahara equations”. Chaos solitons Fract., 19, 147-150 (2004)

XVII.Kabir,M. M. “Exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear elastic rod equation”. J. King Saud University-Sci. xxx , xxx-xxx (2017)

XVIII.Khan, K. and Akbar, M. A. “Traveling wave solutions of the (2 +1)-dimensional Zoomeron equation and the Burgers equations via the MSE method and the Exp-function method”. Ain Shams Eng. J., 5, 247-256 (2013)

XIX.Kumar, A. Dayal, R. “Tanh-coth scheme for traveling wave solutions for nonlinear wave interaction model”. J. Egyptian Math. Soc., 23, 282-285 (2015)

XX.`Liu,J. G. and He, Y. “New periodic solitary wave solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional generalized shallow water equation”. Nonlinear Dyn., 90, 363-369 (2017)

XXI.Liu,J.G. andHe, Y. Abundant lump and lump-kink solutions for the new (3+1)-dimensional generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, Nonlinear Dyn., 92, ( 3) 1103-1108 (2018)

XXII.Lu, X. andLin, F. “Soliton excitations and shape-changing collisions in alpha helical proteins with interspine coupling at higher order”. Comm. Non. Sci. Num. Simul. 32, 241-261 (2016)

XXIII.Liu, J. G. Tian, Y. and Zeng, Z. F. “New exact periodic solitary-wave solutions for the new (3+1)-dimensional generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation in multi-temperature electron plasmas”. American Ins. Phys., 7, 105013 (2017)

XXIV.Liu,J. G. Zhou, L. and He, Y. “Multiple soliton solutions for the new dimensional Korteweg-de Vries equation by multiple exp-function method”. Appl. Math. Lett., 80, 71-78 (2018)

XXV.Malfliet, W. “Solitary wave solutions of nonlinear wave equations”. American J. Phys., 60, 650-654 (1992)

XXVI.Malwe, B. H. Betchewe, G. Doka, S. Y. and Kofane, T.C. “Travelling wave solutions and soliton solutions for the nonlinear transmission line using the generalized Riccati equation mapping method”. Nonlinear Dyn, 84, 171-177 (2015) XXVII.Naher, H. and Abdullah, F. A. “The basic -expansion method for the fourth order Boussinesq equation”. Appl. Math., 3(10), 1144-1152 (2012)

XXVIII.Naher, H. and Abdullah, F. A. “New approach of -expansion method and new approach of generalized (G′/G)-expansion method for nonlinear evolution equation”. AIP Adv., 3(3), 032116 (2013)

XXIX.Naher, H. Abdullah, F. A. and Akbar, M. A. “The -expansion method for abundant traveling wave solutions of Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon equation”. Math. Probl. Eng., 2011, 11 (2011)

XXX.Nofal, T.A. “Simple equation method for nonlinear partial differential equations and its applications”. J. Egyptian Math. Soc., 24, 204-209 (2016)

XXXI.Roshid, H. O. “Novel solitary wave solution in shallow water and ion acoustic plasma waves in-terms of two nonlinear models via MSE method”. J. Ocean Eng. Sci., 2, 196-202 (2017)

XXXII.Sonmezoglu, A. Yao, M. Ekici, M. Mirzazadeh, M. and Zhou, Q. “Explicit solitons in the parabolic law nonlinear negative-index materials”. Nonlinear Dyn., 88, 595-607 (2017)

XXXIII.Wang, M. Li, X. and Zhang, J. “The -expansion method and travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics”. Phys. Lett. A, 372, 417-423 (2008)

XXXIV.Wazwaz, A. M. “Exact soliton and kink solutions for new (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear modified equations of wave propagation”. Open Eng. 7, 169-174 (2017)

XXXV.Wazwaz, A. M. The tanh-coth method for solitons and kink solutions for nonlinear parabolic equations. Appl. Math. Comput., 188, 1467-1475 (2007)

XXXVI.Zayed, E. M. E. and Al-Nowehy, A. G. “Exact solutions of the Biswas-Milovic equation, the ZK (m, n, k) equation and the K (m, n) equation using the generalized Kudryashov method”. Open Phys., 14, 129-139 (2016)

XXXVII.Zayed, E. M. E. and Al-Nowehy, A. G. “Exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear PDEs in mathematical physics using the generalized Kudryashov method”. Serbian J. Electrical Eng., 13, 203-227 (2016)

XXXVIII.Zayed, E. M. E. and Al-Nowehy, A. G. “Solitonsand other exact solutions for variant nonlinear Boussinesq equations, Int. J. Light Electron Opt., 03.092 (2017)

XXXIX.Zayed, E. M. E. and El-Malky, M. A. “The extended -expansion method and its applications for solving the (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics”. Glob. J. Sci. Frontier Res., 11, 68-80 (2011) XL.Zayed, E. M. E. and Gepreel, K. A. The -expansion method for finding traveling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics, J. Math. Phys., 50, 013502 (2009)

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Power Generation from Piezoelectric Footstep Technique


Muhammad Aamir Aman, Hamza Umar Afridi, Muhammad Zulqarnain Abbasi, Akhtar Khan, Muhammad Salman



The production of electric power from the foot step movement of the peoples and the pressure exerted during walking which is fritter away, is the main theme of this paper. The mechanical power transformation into electrical power as the pressure exerted by the footstep and by using transducers is basically called as “Foot step power generation system”. Power is produced by the power generating floor and it is basically the production of electrical energy from kinetic energy. As today electricity demand is increasing and it is unable to overcome this global issue by using the traditional power generating sources. Demand and supply gap is the major issue of energy crisis. The main aim is to overcome the power crisis throughout the world although it is not enough to fulfill over excessive demand of electrical energy but it will be able to change and decrease reliance on old method of generating electricity. We can generate 1 megawatt of power if we have a 100 floor, as we are able to model a power production floor which can generate up to 1000 watt on just twelve footsteps means one unit and it is capable to generate 10000w power for just 120 footsteps. It can be installed on road side footpath, parks and jogging tracks and many other public place, airport etc. and have great impact of this and will create great difference in the electrical power generation system.


Energy Crisis,Supply and demand,Renewable Energy,Piezoelectric,Piezoelectric,Footstep power generation system,


I.Ashley Taylor and Tom krupenkin “Reverse electro wetting as a new approach to high power energy harvesting” Nature communication, pp 1-7August 2011.

II.Binoy Boban, Tom Jose V, Sijvo MT, “Electricty generation from footsteps; A Generative energy Resources”International journal of sciventic and research Publication 1-3,March 2013.

III.Global warming.

IV.G.R.Nagpal, “Power Plant Engineering” Khanna Publisher, Delhi.

V.Muhammad Aamir Aman*1, Muhammad Zulqarnain Abbasi2, Hamza Umar Afridi3,Mehr-e-Munir4, Jehanzeb Khan5 Department of Electrical Engineering, Iqra National University, Pakistan Email : “Photovoltaic (PV) System Feasibility for Urmar Payan a Rural Cell Sites in Pakistan” J.Mech.Cont.& Math. Sci., Vol.-13, No.-3, July-August (2018) Pages 173-179.

VI.Muhammad Aamir Aman*1, Muhammad Zulqarnain Abbasi2, Murad Ali3, Akhtar Khan4 Department of Electrical Engineering, Iqra National University, Pakistan Email : “To Negate the influences of Un-deterministic Dispersed Generation on Interconnection to the Distributed System considering Power Losses of the system” J.Mech.Cont.& Math. Sci., Vol.-13, No.-3, July-August (2018) Pages 117-132.

VII.Piezoelectric foot step power generation by sagar institute oftechnology.

VIII.S.Dhaley, D.English, E.Hu, P.Barbara, and A. Belcher, “Nature”, PP 665, 2000.

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Blockchain Based E-Stamp Procurement System with Efficient Consensus Mechanism and Fast Parallel Search


Nikita Singh, Manu Vardhan



Digital Ledger Technology (DLT) is fast growing as solution to various financial applications that require secure and temper proof transactions system. The blockchain based system is a decentralized system for storing the information in consistent and virtually centralized environment. This paper proposes blockchain based application for e-stamping facility along with new consensus algorithm and optimized search algorithm. To achieve consensus for the newly mined block, it is proposed that only trusted nodes are selected for voting. This reduces broadcasting overhead to multicasting to about 50% of nodes. The proposed fast parallel search algorithm reduces the overall search time by 1/5 as compared to the existing algorithms. This is done on a subset of block chain against complete blockchain. Finally, the system can be adopted for the digitalization of the e-stamp facility and process where the stamp duty is required. The government authorities can also authorize private organization for selling the e-stamp to generate the revenue. The system can be able to detect any fraudulent activity.


Blockchain,Consensus Mechanism,Block Search,Trust, P2p ,


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II.Batubara, F.R., Ubacht, J., Janssen, M.,”Challenges of blockchain technology adoption for e-government: a systematic literature review”. In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age. p. 76 (2018).

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IV.Eastlake 3rd, D., Jones, P.,”US secure hash algorithm 1 (SHA1)”. (2001).

V.Ferrer E.C., “The blockchain: a new framework for robotic swarm systems,” arXiv Prepr. arXiv1608.00695, 2016.

VI.Guo, Y., Liang, C.,”Blockchain application and outlook in the banking industry”. FinancialInnovation2, 24 (2016).

VII.Hou H.,”The application of blockchain technology in E-government in China”. In Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), 2017 26th International Conference on 2017 Jul 31 (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

VIII.Johnson, D., Menezes, A., Vanstone, S.,”The elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA)”. Int. J. Inf. Secur. 1, 36–63 (2001).

IX.King S. and Nadal S. “Ppcoin: Peer-to-peer crypto-currency with proof-of-stake,” self-published Pap. August, vol. 19, 2012.

X.Kumari,A., Mishra, S., Kushwaha, D.S.,”A New CollaborativeTrust Enhanced Security Model for Distributed System”. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 1, 127–134 (2010).

XI.Lua, E.K., Crowcroft, J., Pias, M., Sharma, R., Lim, S.,”A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes”. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials. 7, 72–93 (2005).

XII.Mettler M.,”Blockchain technology in healthcare,The revolution starts here”. Ine-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom), 2016 IEEE 18th International Conference on 2016 Sep 14 (pp. 1-3). IEEE.

XIII.Mills, D.C., Wang, K., Malone, B., Ravi, A., Marquardt, J., Badev, A.I., Brezinski, T., Fahy, L., Liao, K., Kargenian, V., others,”Distributed ledger technology in payments, clearing, and settlement”. (2016) Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2016-095. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,

XIV.Mishra, S., Kushwaha, D.S., Misra, A.K.: Jingle-Mingle,”A Hybrid Reliable Load Balancing Approach for a Trusted Distributed Environment”. In: INC, IMS and IDC, 2009. NCM’09. FifthInternational Joint Conference on. pp. 117–122 (2009).

XV.Nakamoto S., “Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system,” 2008.XVI.Nguyen QK,”Blockchain-a financial technology for future sustainable development”. InGreen Technology and Sustainable Development (GTSD), International Conference on 2016 Nov 24 (pp. 51-54). IEEE.

XVII.Shand, M., Vuillemin, J.,”Fast implementations of RSA cryptography”. In: Computer Arithmetic, 1993. Proceedings., 11th Symposium on. pp. 252–259 (1993).

XVIII.Singh K., Singh N. and Kushwaha D. S.,”An Interoperable and Secure E-Wallet Architecture based on Digital Ledger Technology using Blockchain”. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies 2018 (GUCON) (2018).

XIX.Shoaib Zaman, “Duly Stamped”, Article in Money Today, Print Edition:January 2014,, Accessed on 16.08.2018.

XX.Sward, A., Vecna, I., Stonedahl, F.,”Data Insertion in Bitcoin’s Blockchain”. Ledger. 3, (2018).

XXI.Vardhan M, Kushwaha DS,”File replication and consistency maintenance mechanism in a trusted distributed environment”. CSI Transactions on ICT. 2013 Mar 1;1(1):29-49.

XXII.Weblink for IPFS,

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Field Investigation of Modified Asphalt Mix in Pakistan


Abdul Farhan, Nadeem Anwar Qureshi, Arshad Hussain, M. Bilal Khurshid, Hassan Farooq Afridi



Pavement distresses such as Rutting, fatigue, Potholes and moisture induced damage are common Pavement distress that causes the pavement failure at early design life of pavement which causes huge financial constrain to national exchequer. Since developed countries are adopting pavement preventive technique as compared to pavement reconstruction. This strategy of pavement prevention can be beneficial for developing countries to enhance serviceable life of Pavement, which can save huge amount of Cost. In this research four different Pavement section were selected based on the type of treatment applied on that specific section along Islamabad-Lahore motorway (M-2), Pakistan. The first pavement section was a blend of 15 percent Rap and 7 percent crumb rubber (Rap 15%, CR 7%), the second pavement section was a blend of asphalt with crumb rubber modified bitumen as binder (Rap 0%, CR 7%), the third Pavement section was a blend of 15 percent Rap with grade 60-70 bitumen as binder (Rap 15%, CR 0%), the fourth section was asphalt concrete wearing course with grade 60-70 bitumen as binder(Rap 0%, CR 0%). Cores were extracted from the selected four section which were further evaluated at laboratory for pavement distresses such as fatigue and damage induced to pavement due to moisture at lab. It was concluded that section one performance against fatigue was substantially better than other pavement sections while section one performance against moisture induced damages was lesser as compare to other section. Moreover, it was observed that resistance against moisture damage was considerable in section 3.


Crum Rubber,Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP),Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test (ITFT),Tensile Strength Ratio Test (TSR),Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (ACWC),


I. Al-Qadi, I. L., Aurangzeb, Q., Carpenter, S. H., Pine, W. J., & Trepanier, J.(2012). Impact of high RAP contents on structural and performanceproperties of asphalt mixtures (0197-9191).

II. Al-Qadi, I. L., Elseifi, M., & Carpenter, S. H. (2007). Reclaimed asphalt pavement—a literature review (0197-9191).

III. Ghabchi, R., Singh, D., Zaman, M., & Hossain, Z. (2016). Laboratory characterisation of asphalt mixes containing RAP and RAS. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 17(9), 829-846.

IV.Ibrahim, M. R., Katman, H. Y., Karim, M. R., Koting, S., & Mashaan, N. S. (2013). A review on the effect of crumb rubber addition to the rheology of crumb rubber modified bitumen. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2013. V.Moghaddam, T. B., & Baaj, H. (2016). The use of rejuvenating agents in production of recycled hot mix asphalt: A systematic review. Construction and Building Materials, 114, 805-816


VII.Palit, S., Reddy, K. S., & Pandey, B. (2004). Laboratory evaluation of crumb rubber modified asphalt mixes. Journal of materials in civil engineering, 16(1), 45-53.

VIII.Solanki, P., Zaman, M., Adje, D., & Hossain, Z. (2013). Field construction and mechanistic performance of hotmix asphalt containing reclaimed asphalt pavement. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 6(4), 403-413.

IX.Wang, H., Dang, Z., Li, L., & You, Z. (2013). Analysis on fatigue crack growth laws for crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt mixture. Construction and Building Materials, 47, 1342-1349.

X.Xiao, F., Amirkhanian, S. N., Shen, J., & Putman, B. (2009). Influences of crumb rubber size and type on reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) mixtures. Construction and Building Materials, 23(2), 1028-1034.

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Investigation of Fouling and its Impact in Heat Exchangers


Ashis kumarDey, Partha Sarathi Das, Smruti Ranjan Pradhan, Govind Sahu



As heat transfer device, heat exchanger has gained wide applications across different areas of domestic and industrial set-ups. Various studies have been carried out to analyze and predict its performance. However, one major problem that limits heat exchanger performance is fouling effect. Based on this, different studies and approaches have been employed by different researchers on reduction and mitigation of fouling. The following review paper furnishes the different major analysis carried out by different researchers on the effect of fouling of shell and tube type of heat exchanger. The study found that despite of the existing models developed towards understanding fouling, there is no single model that has provided an accurate prediction of fouling in tube and shell type heat exchangers. Further to this, majority of the study results only pointed to small scale laboratory test schemes and there is absence of sufficient data that predicts actual (real life) service performance.


Heat Exchanger, Heat Transfer,Energy System, Fouling model,Mitigation,


I.Bennett, C. A., Kistler, R. S., Nangia, K., Al-Ghawas, W., Al-Hajji, N., & AlJemaz, A.(2009). Observation of an isokinetic temperature and compensation effect for high-temperature crude oil fouling.Heat Transfer Engineering,30(10-11), 794-804.

II.Benzinger, W., Schygulla, U., Jäger, M., & Schubert, K. (2005). Anti fouling investigations with ultrasound in a microstructured heat exchanger.

III.Crittenden, B. D., & Kolaczkowski, S. T. (1979). Mass transfer and chemical kinetics in hydrocarbon fouling. InConf. on Fouling: Art or Science(p. 169).

IV.Crittenden, B. D., Kolaczkowski, S. T., & Hout, S.(1987). Modelling hydrocarbonfouling.Chemical Engineering Research and Design,65(2), 171-179.

V.D. I. Wilson, Challenges in Cleaning: Recent Developments andFuture Prospects, Proc of Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning :Fundamentals and Applications, Engineering Conferences International. Art. 21 (2003)

VI.Demirskiy, O. V., Kapustenko, P. O., Arsenyeva, O. P., Matsegora, O. I., & Pugach, Y. A. (2018). Prediction of fouling tendency in PHE by data of on-site monitoring. Case study at sugar factory.Applied Thermal Engineering,128, 1074-1081.

VII.Ebert, W., & Panchal, C. B. (1995).Analysis of Exxon crude-oil-slip stream coking data(No. ANL/ES/CP-92175; CONF-9506406-3). Argonne NationalLab., IL (United States).

VIII.Epstein, N. (1994). A model of the initial chemical reaction fouling rate for flow within a heated tube and its verification. InInstitution Of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series(Vol. 135, pp. 225-225). Hemsphere Publishing Corporation.

IX.Ishiyama, E. M., Paterson, W. R., & Wilson, D. I. (2009). The effect of fouling on heat transfer, pressure drop, and throughput in refinery preheat trains: optimization of cleaning schedules.Heat Transfer Engineering,30(10-11), 805-814.

X.Kakac, S., Liu,H., & Pramuanjaroenkij, A. (2002).Heat exchangers: selection, rating, and thermal design. CRC press.

XI.Kern, D. (1959). A theoretical analysis of thermal surface fouling.Br. Chem.Eng.,4, 258-262.XII.Klaren, D. G., & Sullivan, D. W. (2001). Improvements and Achievements in Self-Cleaning Heat Transfer.AIChE, Process Innovation for Existing Processes.

XIII.Klaren, D. G., de Boer, E. F., & Sullivan, D. W. (2007). Low Fouling Crude Oil Preheaters: Scrap Your Existing Conventional Crude Oil Preheaters, Replace Them By Low Fouling Heat Exchangers And Save Money.

XIV.Mohanty, D. K., & Singru, P. M. (2011). Use of C-factor for monitoring of fouling in a shell and tube heat exchanger.Energy,36(5), 2899-2904.

XV.Nasr, M. R. J., & Givi, M. M. (2006). Modeling of crudeoil fouling in preheats exchangers of refinery distillation units.Applied thermal engineering,26(14-15), 1572-1577.

XVI.Nesta, J., & Bennett, C. A. (2004). Reduce fouling in shell-and-tube heat exchangers: proper design lowers capital costs and increases both efficiency and on stream time.Hydrocarbon Processing,83(7), 77-82.

XVII.Panchal, C. B., Kuru, W. C., Liao, C. F., Ebert, W. A., & Palen, J. W. (1999). Threshold conditions for crude oil fouling.Understanding heat exchanger fouling.and its mitigation,273,273-279.

XVIII.Polley, G. T., Wilson, D. I., Yeap, B. L., & Pugh, S. J. (2002). Evaluation of laboratory crude oil threshold fouling data for application to refinery pre-heat trains.Applied Thermal Engineering,22(7), 777-788.

XIX.Ruckenstein, E., & Prieve, D. C. (1973). Rate of deposition of Brownian particles under the action of London and double-layer forces.Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 2: Molecular and Chemical Physics,69, 1522-1536.
XX.Saleh, Z. S., Sheikholeslami, R., & Watkinson, A. P. (2005). Fouling characteristics of a light Australian crude oil.Heat transfer engineering,26(1), 15-22.
XXI.Shen, C., Cirone, C., Yang, L., Jiang, Y., & Wang, X. (2014). Characteristics of fouling development in shell-and-tube heat exchanger: effects of velocity and installation location.International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,77, 439-448.
XXII.Sulaiman, M. A., Kuye, S. I., & Owolabi, S. A. (2016). Investigation Of Fouling Effect On Overall Performance Of Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger In A Urea Fertilizer Production Company In Nigeria.Nigerian Journal of Technology,35(1), 129-136.
XXIII.Watkinson, A. P., & Epstein, N. (1969). Gas oil fouling in a sensible heat exchanger. InChem Eng Prog Symp Ser(Vol. 65, No. 92, pp. 84-90).
XXIV.Yang, M., O’meara, A., & Crittenden, B. D. (2011, June). Determination of crude oil fouling thresholds. InProc. of International Conference on Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning-June(pp. 05-10).
XXV.Zhenhua, Q., Yongchang, C., & Chongfang, M. A. (2008). Experimental study of fouling on heat transfer surface during forced convective heat transfer.Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering,16(4), 535-540.
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Transmission Lines Monitoring from Satellite Images


Abdullah Zain, Samad Baseer, Mehr-e-Munir



This paper presents a technique for the identification of the transmission line in improving the vegetation management for the maintenance of vegetation corridor along the transmission line. A satellite image is scanned pixel by pixel to identify the transmission tower in the image. After successful detection of towers, area of interest is interpolated in the image. This area of interest, only contain the right of way of transmission line in vegetation field. Timely vegetation management can reduce outages. Outages occur due to encroachment of trees. These encroachment cause substantial damages and become reason of electric outages for residential and Industrial areas. The objective of this paper is to enhance vegetation monitoring system based on satellite image. The final outcome is to reduce substantially the amount of information to be processed for vegetation management along the transmission line, especially for remote area where the co-ordinated information is difficult to obtain.


Transmission line,encroachment,satellite images,google image,vegetation management,area of interes, right of way,


I.Junaid Ahmad, Aamir Saeed Malik “Vegetation Management for High-Voltage Transmission Line Corridors using Satellite Stereo Images”

II.Kobayashi, G.G. Karady, G.T. Heydt, R.G.Olsen “The Utilization of Satellite Images to identify Trees Endangering Transmission line”.

III.Lili Ma and YangQuan Chen “Aerial Surveillance System for Overhead Power Line Inspection”. Technical Report No. :USU-CSOIS-TR-04-08.

IV.Paul Hines, Jay Apt, Huaiwei Liao, and Sarosh Talukdar “The frequency of large blackouts in the United States electrical transmission system: an empirical study”.

V.Transmission Line & Transmission Station in VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PRACTICES by Manitoba hydro company.

VI.Utility vegetation management and bulk electric reliability report from the federal energy regulatory commission September 7, 2004

VII.Utility vegetation management and bulk electric reliability report from the federal energyregulatory commission. FERC ¶ 61,052 at P 27-28 (2004).

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