Special Issue No. – 1, March, 2019

International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Science and Technology. International Conference organized by IPN Education Group, Malaysia and Scientific Research Publishing House, Iran

A Goal Programming Approach to Peninsular Of Malaysia Electricity Tariff Structure


Noriza Mohd Saad,Zulkifli Abdullah,Nora Yusma Mohamed Yusof,Norhayati Mat Husin,Ahmad Lutfi Mohayiddin ,Mohamad Taufik Mohd Arshad ,




Tariff design is the key mechanism used to allocate electricity generation and distribution costs to customers. The designing process can be very complex not only due to the regulatory policies surrounding it but also due to the need of satisfying various parties such as the electricity distributor and the different types of electricity customers. Therefore, it is the aim of this study to formulate an optimum tariff structure for Malaysia that can deal with multiple objective functions. Utilizing secondary data gathered through various energy related sources and a goal programming approach, a new optimum tariff structure has been proposed specifically focused on domestic customers and others in general. The findings show, in the case of domestic users, having only two bands of domestic customers instead of the current practice of five, may have already helped to achieve an optimum tariff structure. The findings also show that for other types of users Malaysian current tariff structure may have yet to achieve its optimum level. While these findings are subjected to few limitations, it is notable that the findings can be used to evaluate the existing tariff structure of Malaysia.


Goal Programming, Electricity,Tariff Structure,Optimization,


I.Anderson, J. E., & Neary, J. P. (2007). Welfare versus market access: The implications of tariff structure for tariff reform. Journal of International Economics 71, 187–205.

II.Anderson, J. E., & Neary, J. P. (2016). Sufficient statistics for tariff reform when revenue matters. Journal of International Economics 98, 150–159.

III.Brown, T., Faruqui, A. & Grausz, L. (2015). Efficient tariff structures for distribution network services. Economic Analysis and Policy 48, 139–149

IV.Chen, C-Y & Liao, C-J. (2011). A linear programming approach to the electricity contract capacity problem. Applied Mathematical Modelling 35, 4077–4082.

V.Energy Commission Malaysia (2017), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

VI.Economy Planning Unit (EPU) (2013). The Malaysia Economy in Figures 2013.Fernández, M.A., Zorita, A.L., García-Escudero, L.A., Duque, O., Moríñigo, D., Riesco, M. & Muñoz, M. (2013). Cost optimization of electrical contracted capacity for large customers. Electrical Power and Energy Systems 46, 123–131.

VII.Hledik, R. (2014). Rediscovering Residential Demand Charges. The Electricity Journal, 1040-6190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2014.07.003

VIII.Hledik, R. & Greenstein, G. (2016). The distributional impacts of residential demand charges. The Electricity Journal 29, 33–41.

IX.Lee, J.Y. & Chen, C.L. (2007). Iteration particle optimization for contract capacities selection of time-of-use rates industrial customers. Energy Convers. Manage. 48,1120–1131.

X.Mohd Saad, N., Mohamed Yusof, N.Y., Mamat, M.N., Abdullah, Z., Mat Husin, N. & Ibrahim, J. (2018). A Review of Tariff Efficiency Mechanisms for Malaysian Electricity Distribution Firm. 4th International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Management 2018 (ICETM 2018) at Singapore on 26th-28th January 2018.

XI.Nijhuis, M. , Gibescu, M. &Cobben, J.F.G. (2017). Analysis of reflectivity & predictability of electricity network tariff structures for household consumers. Energy Policy 109, 631–641.

XII.Nojavan, S., Zare, K. & Mohammadi-Ivatloo, B.(2017). Robust bidding and offering strategies of electricity retailer under multi-tariff pricing. Energy Economics 68, 359–372.

XIII.Passey, R., Haghdadi, N., Bruce, A. & MacGil, I. (2017). Designing more cost reflective electricity network tariffs with demand charges. Energy Policy 109, 642–649.

XIV.Picciariello, A., Reneses, J., Frías, P. & Soder, L. (2015a). Distributed generation and distribution pricing: Why do we need new tariff design methodologies?. Electric Power Systems Research 119, 370-376.

XV.Picciariello, A., Vergara, C., Reneses, J., Frías, P. & Soder,L. (2015b). Electricity distribution tariffs and distributed generation: Quantifying cross-subsidies from consumers to prosumers. Utilities Policy 37, 23-33.

XVI.Rodrı ́guez Ortega, M. P. & Pe ́rez-Arriaga, J. I. (2008). Distribution network tariffs: A closed question?. Energy Policy 36, 1712–1725.

XVII.Rubin, S. J. (2015). Moving Toward Demand-Based Residential Rates. November 2015, 28 (9), 1040-6190/# Elsevier Inc. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2015.09.021

XVIII.Schlereth, C., Stepanchuk, T. & Skiera, B. (2010). Optimization and analysis of the profitability of tariff structures with two-part tariffs. European Journal of Operational Research 206, 691–701.

XIX.Tsay, M.T., Lin, W.M. & Lee, J.L. (2001). Optimal contracts decision of industrial customers, International Journalof Electrical Power Energy System 23, 795–803.

XX.Yang, Y., Chen, W. Wei, L. &Chen, X. (2018). Robust optimization for integrated scrap steel charge considering uncertain metal elements concentrations and production scheduling under time-of-use electricity tariff. Journal of Cleaner Production 176, 800-812.

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The Enhanced Extraction Conditions for Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds from the Underutilized Red Pitaya Peels Using Response Surface Methodology


Ramya Vijayakumar,Siti Salwa Abd Gani,Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan,




In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was augmented to determine the effects of independent variables, namely extraction temperature (45-65°C), ethanol concentration (70-90%) and extraction time (80-120 min) to optimize the retained antioxidant compounds of the red pitaya peels through responses which were total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Regression analysis showed that more than 90% of the variation was explained by the second-order polynomial models of the different responses and the experimental values displayed that the extraction conditions had significant effect (p<0.001) on the TPC and TFC respectively. The optimized conditions were ethanol 82% for 103 min at 56°C with values of 172.01 mg/g for TPC and 7.45 mg/g for TFC respectively, which were in a good agreement with those predicted, thus indicating the suitability of the employed model in optimizing the extraction conditions of the red pitaya peels and similar natural functional product optimization.


Response Surface Methodology,Red Pitaya Peels,Antioxidant ,TotalPhenolic Content,Total Flavonoid Content,


I.Biesaga M., and Pyrzynska K. (2013). Stability of Bioactive Polyphenols from Honey during Different Extraction Methods. Food Chemistry, 136: 46-54.

II.Chan S.W., Wan Aida W.M., Lee C.Y., Yap C.F., and Ho C.W. (2009). Optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. Journal of International Food Research, 16: 203-213.

III.Davidov-Pardo G., Arozarena M.R.I., and Marin-Arroyo M.R. (2011). Stability of Polyphenolic Extracts from Grape Seeds after Thermal Treatments. European Food Research and Technology, 232: 211-220.

IV.He G.Q., Xiong H.P.,Chen Q.H., Ruan H., Wang Z.Y., and Traore L. (2005). Optimization of conditions for supercritical fluid extraction of flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.). Journal of Zhejiang University Science 6B, 10: 999-1004.

V.Hoa T.T., Clark C.J., Wadddell B.C., and Woolf A.B. (2006). Postharvest quality of dragon fuit

VI.(Hylocereus undatus) following disinfesting hot air treatments. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41: 62-69.

VII.Kumar S.T., Baskar R., Shanmugam S., Rajsekaran P., Sadasivam S., andManikandan V. (2008). Optimization of flavonoids extraction from the leaves ofTabernaemontana heyneana Wall.using L16 Orthogonal design.Natural Science, 6: 14–25.

VIII.Liyana-Pathirana C.M., and Shahidi F. (2005). Optimization of extraction of phenoliccompounds from wheat using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry, 93: 47-56.

IX.Makris D.P., Boskou G., and Andrikopoulos N.K. (2007). Recovery of antioxidant phenolics from white vinification solid by-products employing water/ethanol mixtures. Bioresource Technology, 98: 2963−2967.

X.Naczk M., and Shahidi F. (2004). Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. Journal of Chromatography A, 1054: 95-111.

XI.Nerd A., Sitrita Y., Kaushika R.A., and Mizrahi Y. 2002. High summer temperatures inhibit flowering in vine pitaya crops (Hylocereus spp). Scientia Horticulturae, 96: 343-350.

XII.Quettier-Deleu C., Gressier B., Vasseur J., Dine T., Brunet J., Luyck M., Cazin M., Cazin J.C., Bailleul F., and Trotin F. (2000). Phenolic compounds andantioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hulls and flour. Journal of Ethnopharmacolog, 72: 35-40.

XIII.Singleton V.L., Orthofer R., and Lamuela-Raventos R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology, 299: 152–178.

XIV.Spigno G., Tramelli L., and De Faveri D.M. (2007). Effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent on concentration and antioxidant activity of grape marc phenolics. Journal of Food Engineering, 81: 200-208.

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Photo-Protective and Anti-Oxidative Potential in the Leaves of Three Different Melastomataceae Family Species


Nur Fauwizah Azahar,Siti Salwa Abd Gani,Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan,Paiman Bawon,




Melastoma is the family of Melastomataceae species which consists of total more than 4000 species and the most common are Melastoma malalabthricum, Clidemia hirta and Melastoma decemfidum. Continues exploration from the leaves of melastoma plant has been extensively probe for its therapeutic value. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the photo-protective ability and antioxidant potential using DPPH-free radical scavenging assay, total phenolic content and FRAP-reducing power assay. The results show all Melastoma family species have wide range of absorbance such as UVA, UVB and UVB radiation and exhibit good SPF number where Clidemia hirta leaves extract ethyl acetate recorded to have highest SPF value among others. Meanwhile, the three of antioxidant assay shows that Clidemia hirta ethyl acetate displays higher antioxidant activity against DPPH radical and contain higher phenolic and FRAP value as compared to other Melastoma species. Therefore, it can conclude that Melastoma especially from Clidemia hirta species could be one of the potential source of antioxidants as sunscreen products and also for utilization for cosmeceutical, neutraceuticals and medicinal use in the future to overcome various diseases.  


Melastomataceae,Photoprotective ,Antioxidant ,Sun ProtectionFactor ,Leaves,


I.Awang MN., Aziz R., Sarmidi MR., Abdullah CL., Yong PK., and Musa NF. (2016). Comparison of different solvents on the extraction of Melastoma malabathricum leaves using soxhlet extraction method. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 8(17): 153-157. II.Blois MS.(1958). Antioxidant Determinations by The Use of a Stable Free Radical. Nature, 181: 1199-1200.

III.Benzie IEF., and Strain J. (1996). The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of “Antioxidant Power”: The FRAP Assay. Analytical Biochemical, 239:70-76.

IV.Chanda SV., and Nagani KV. (2010). Antioxidant Capacity of Manikara Zapota L. Leaves Extracts Evaluated by Four In Vitro Methods. Natural Sciences, 8: 260-266.

V.Dipali Gupta. (2013). UV absorbing properties of some plant derived extracts. Research Journal of Chemical Environment Science, 34-36.

VI.Joffry SM., Yob NJ., Rofiee MA., and Meor Mohd Affandi NMR. (2011). Melastoma Malabathricum (L) Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Properties: A review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 48

VII.Mansur JS., Breder MVR., Mansur MCA., and Azulay RD. (1986). Determination of Sun Protection Factor for Spectrophotometry. AnaisBrasileiros De Dermatologia, 6(14): 121-124.

VIII.Maizura M., Aminah M., and Wan Aida M. (2011). Total phenolic and antioxidant activity of Kesum (Polygonum minus), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma Longa) extract. International Food Research Journal, 18: 529-534. IX.Martins FJ., Caneschi CA., Veira JLF., Barbosa W.,and Raposo NRB. (2016). Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amozon native flora extracts. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B. Biology, 161: 34-39

X.Merinal S., and Viji SBG. 2012. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Leaf Extracts of Limonia crenulata (Roxb) J. Natural Products Plant Resources, 2(1):209-214.

XI.Napagoda MT., Malkanthi BMAS., Abayawardana SAK., Qader, MM., and Jayasinghe L. (2016). Photoprotective potential in some medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases in Sri Lanka. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16:479

XII.Singleton VL., and Rossi JA. (1965). Colometry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagent.American Journal Enology and Viticulture, 16:144-153.

XIII.Souza C, Patricia MBG., and Maia C. (2017). Development and photoprotective effect of a sunscreen containing the antioxidants Spirulina and dimethylmethoxy chromanol on sun-induced skin damage.European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 104: 52-64

XIV.Zakaria ZA., Rofiee MS., Mohamed AM., Teh LK., and Salleh MZ. (2011). In Vitro Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities, and Total Phenolic Contents of The Extracts of Melastoma Malabathricum Leaves. Journal Acupuncture Meridian Study, 13: 248-258.


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The Nonabelian Tensor Square of a Bieberbach Group with Point Group C2 X C2 of Dimension Three


Rohaidah Masri,Nor Fadzilah Abdul Ladi,Nor’ashiqin Mohd Idrus,Tan Yee Ting,Nor Haniza Sarmin,




A Bieberbach group is a crystallographic group. This group is an extension of a finite point group and a free abelian group of finite rank. In this paper, a Bieberbach group with point group 2 2 C  C of dimension three is chosen where its polycyclic presentation is shown to be consistent. The nonabelian tensor square of group is a specialization of more general of the nonabelian tensor product of group. The nonabelian tensor square of group is one of the homological functors which can reveal the properties of the groups. Also, the nonabelian tensor squares are one of the important elements on computing homological functors of groups. The main objective of this paper is to compute the nonabelian tensor square of a Bieberbach group with point group 2 2 C  C of dimension three by using the computational method for polycyclic groups. The finding showed that the nonabelian tensor square of the group is abelian and be presented in terms of its generators. The findings of this research can be used to compute the other homological functors of this group.


Bieberbach Group, Polycyclic Groups,Nonabelian Tensor Square,


I.Abdul Ladi, N. F., Masri, R., Mohd Idrus, N., Sarmin, N. H., and Tan, Y. T. (2017). The Central Subgroup of the Nonabelian Tensor Squares of Some Bieberbach Groups with Elementary Abelian 2-group Point Group. Jurnal Teknologi. 79(7):115-121.

II.Abdul Ladi, N.F., Masri, R., Mohd Idrus, N., Sarmin, N. H., and Tan, Y. T. (2017). The Nonabelian Tensor Squares of a Bieberbach Group with Elementary Abelian 2-group Point Group. Journal Fundamental and Applied Sciences.9(7S):111-123.

III.Abdul Ladi, N. F., Masri, R., Mohd Idrus, N., Sarmin, N. H., and Tan, Y. T. (2016). On The Generalization of The Abelianizations of Two Families of Bieberbach Groups with Elementary Abelian 2-Group Point Group. Proceeding of The 6thInternational Graduate Conference on Engineering, Science and Humanities2016: 393 –395.

IV.Bacon, M. R. and Kappe, L. C. (2003). On Capable p-groups of Nilpotency Class Two. Illinois Journal of Mathematics. 47:49-62.

V.Blyth, R. D. and Morse, R. F. (2009). Computing the nonabelian tensor squares of polycyclic groups. Journal of Algebra. 321:2139-2148.

VI.Blyth, R. D., Fumagalli, F. and Morigi, M. (2010). Some Structural Results on the Non-abelian Tensor Square of Groups. Journal of Group Theory. 13:83-94.

VII.Blyth, R. D., Moravec, P. and Morse, R. F. (2008). On the Nonabelian Tensor Squares of Free Nilpotent groups of finite rank. Contemporary Mathematics. 470:27-44.

VIII.Brown, R. and Loday, J. L. (1987). Van Kampen Theorems for Diagram of Spaces. Topology. 26:311-335.

IX.Brown, R., Johnson, D. L. and Robertson, E. F. (1987). Some Computations of Non-abelian Tensor Products of Groups. Journal Algebra. 111(1):177-202.

X.Eick, B. and Nickel, W. (2008). Computing the Schur Multiplicator and the Nonabelian Tensor Square of Polycyclic Group. Journal of Algebra. 320(2):927-944.

XI.Ellis, G. and Leonard, F. (1995). Computing Schur Multipliers and Tensor Products of Finite Groups, Vol. 2 of Proceedings Royal Irish Academy. Sect. 95A.

XII.Mat Hassim, (2014). The Homological Functors of Bieberbach Groups with Cyclic Point Groups of Order Two, Threeand Five. PhD Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia.

XIII.Masri, R. (2009). The Nonabelian Tensor Squares of Certain Bieberbach Groups with Cyclic Point Group of Order Two. PhD Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malysia, Skudai, Malaysia.

XIV.Mohd Idrus, N. (2011). Bieberbach Groups with Finite Point Groups. PhD Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malysia, Skudai, Malaysia.

XV.Rocco, N. R. (1991). On a Construction Related to The Nonabelian Tensor Squares of a Group. Bol. Soc. Brasil. Mat. (N. S.) 22(1):63-79.

XVI.Sarmin, N. H., Kappe, L. C. and Visscher, M. P. (1999). Two-generator Two-groups of class two and their nonabelian Tensor Squares. Glasgow Mathematical Journal. 41(3):417-430.

XVII.Tan, Y. T., Mohd Idrus, N., Masri, R., Wan Mohd Fauzi, W. N. F., Sarmin, N. H. and Mat Hassim, H. I. (2016a). The Nonabelian Tensor Square of Bieberbach Group with Symmetric Point Group of Order Six. Jurnal Teknologi. 78(1):189-193.

XVIII.Tan, Y. T., Mohd Idrus, N., Masri, R., Sarmin, N. H. and Mat Hassim, H. I. (2016b). On the Generalization of the Nonabelian Tensor Square of Bieberbach Group with Symmetric Point Group. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. (In Press).

XIX.Wan Mohd Fauzi, W. N. F., Mohd Idrus, N., Masri, R. and Tan, Y. T. (2014). On Computing the Nonabelian Tensor Squareof Bieberbach Group with Dihedral Point Group of Order 8. Journal of Scence and Mathematics. Letters. (2):13-22.

XX.Zomorodian, A. J. (2005). Topology for Computing. Cambridge University Press, NewYork, Chap. 4, pp.79 –82.

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Central Composite Design (CCD) for Parameters Optimization of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) by Response Surface Methodology (RSM)


Y. Kah Yung,H.S. Chua,M. J. K. Bashir,F.Y.C.Albert,Sunil Govinda,




This paper focus on the CCD with RSM optimization of parameters. Design of Experiment (DoE) hardware was developed with P&O MPPT algorithm to measure Input A: Input Voltage (VIN), Input B: Input Current (IIN), Input C: Duty Cycle, Input D: Irradiance and output power. The optimization of process parameters was successfully identified from the experimental design and CCD results. The coefficient of determination of R2 is shown 99.89% which is a good fit in the model. The adequacy prevision of 89.437 indicated an adequate signal and noise was negligible. The optimization of a set of experimental parameters and observed results were VIN: 18.82 V, IIN: 0.65A, Duty Cycle: 85% and Irradiance: 883.79 W/m2. Overall, we concluded that input voltage is the most significant term influencing output power, following by input current, duty cycle and irradiance. All results were validated by experiments, simulations and theory calculation. The validation error results between predicted and experimental output power were shown that a maximum error at +3.65% and a minimum error at 0.00%, which had validated the accuracy of the prediction.


Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT),Perturb and Observe (P&O),Central Composite Design (CCD),Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Design ofExperiment (DOE) Optimization of Parameters,


I.Ahmed.O.Mohamed Zain,C. Huang Shen, Sunil Govinda, F.Y.C. Albert,Ammar AM Al-Talib (2017). Matlab Design and Power Analysis of MPPT Controller for Solar PV using Perturb and Observation Algorithm.REEGETECH 2017.

II.Carré, A. and Mittal, K.L.(2011). Experimental Design. Surface and Interfacial Aspects of Cell Adhesion, CRC Press. pp 355.

III.Demirel, M. and Kayan, B.(2012). Application of response surface methodology and central composite design for optimization of textile dye degradation by wet air oxidation. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, 1-10.

IV.Femia, F., Petrone,G., Spagnuolo, G. and Vitelli, M. (2005). Optimization of Perturb and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking Method. IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, 20, 963-973.

V.Hart, D.W. (2010). Power Electronics. McGraw-Hill Education, 196-264.

VI.Hussain Mutlag, A., Mohamed, A. and Shareef, H. (2016). A comparative study of artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking for photovoltaicsystems. International Conference on Advances in Renewable Energy and Technologies. 1-4.

VII.Lichtfouse, E., Schwarzbauer, J. and Robert, D. (2013). Response Surface Method and Central Composite Design. Green Materials for Energy, Products and Depollution. 397.

VIII.Montgomery, C.C. (2005). Multiple Regression Assumptions, Diagnostics and Efficacy Measures: Cook’s Distance. Design and Analysis of Experiments, 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, USA. 185.

IX.Othman, A.M., Elsayed, M.A., Elshafei, A.M. and Hassan, M.M. (2017). Application of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Extracellular Fungal Mediated Nanosilver Green Synthesis. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. 497-504.

X.Pant, M., Deep, K., Nagar, A. and Bansal, J.C. (2014). Regression Analysis Concept. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving. Springer, Volume 2, 824.

XI.Prashanthi, M. and Rajakumar, S. (2016). Box Behnken Experimental Design and Responses. Integrated Waste Management in India: Status and Future Prospects for Environmental Sustainability. Springer,184.

XII.Sarrai, A.E., Hanini, S., Merzouk, N.K., Tassalit, D., Sazbo, T., Hernadi, K. and Nagy, L. (2016). Using Central Composite Experimental Design to Optimize the Degradation of Tylosin from Aqueous Solution by Photo-Fenton Reaction. Molecular Diversity Preservation International and Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. 428.

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Assessment of Ponderability of Parameters of Platform Joint on Reliability by Method of Linearization


Vera V. Galishnikova,Ashot G. Tamrazyan,Denis S. Dekhterev,




In the process of the study of platform joints of panel buildings, it was established that the most significant contribution to the reliability of the joint is provided by a number of parameters which have specialty randomly. The distribution of these parameters is described by a normal principle that does not have a simple numerical solution. To determine the probability of failure of the connection in the conduct of probabilistic calculations, method of linearization is used, which is based on the method of expanding the initial function in a Taylor series. The work assesses the impact of structural parameters of the horizontal platform joint of panel buildings on the reliability of the connection. The coefficients of ponderability of the investigated parameters are determined in estimating the probability of joint failure. The practical value of the obtained research results is to increase the reliability of the node of interface panel.


probability of failure reliability linearization,platform jointLaplace function,


I.André Teófilo Beck, Cláudio R. Ávila da S. Jr.(2016).Strategies for finding the design point under bounded random variables. Structural Safety, 58:79–93.

II.Bing Xue, Jia-Liang Le.(2016).Simplified energy-based analysis of collapse risk of reinforced concrete buildings. Structural Safety, 63: 47-58.

III.C. Hsein Juang, Wenping Gong, James R. Martin.(2017).Subdomain sampling methods –Efficient algorithm for estimating failure probability. Structural Safety, 66: 62-73.

IV.Guofeng Xue, Hongzhe Dai, Hao Zhang, Wei Wang.(2017). A new unbiased metamodel method for efficient reliability analysis. Structural Safety, 67: 1-10.

V.Ji Hyeon Kim, Seung Han Lee, Inyeol Paik, Hae Sung Lee.(2015). Reliability assessment of reinforced concrete columns based on the P–M interaction diagram using AFOSM. Structural Safety,55: 70-79.

VI.Jorge E. HurtadoJuliana Ramírez.(2013). The estimation of failure probabilities as a false optimization problem. Structural Safety, 45: 1-9.

VII.Kathryn Roscoe, Ferdinand Diermanse, Ton Vrouwenvelder.(2015).System reliability with correlated components: Accuracy of the Equivalent Planes method. StructuralSafety. 57:53–64.

VIII.Nebojša Mojsilovića, Mark G. Stewart.(2015). Probability and structural reliability assessment of mortar joint thickness in load-bearing masonry walls. Structural Safety, 52:209-218.

IX.Ning-Cong Xiao, Yan-Feng Li, Yuanjian Yang, Le Yu, Hong-Zhong Huang.(2014). A novel reliability method for structural systems with truncated random variables. Structural Safety, 50: 57-65.

X.Qingyu Zhou, Zhengliang Li, Wenliang Fan, Alfredo H-S Ang, Runyu Liu.(2016). System reliability assessment of deteriorating structures subjected to time-invariant loads based on improved moment method. Structural Safety, 68: 54-64.

XI.Wang-Sheng Liu, Sai Hung Cheung. (2017).Reliability based design optimization with approximate failure probability function in partitioned design space. Reliability Engineering & System Safety,167: 602-611.

XII.XinLiu, ZhixiangKuang,LairongYin, LinHu.(2017). Structural reliability analysis based on probability and probability box hybrid model. Structural Safety,68: 73-84.

XIII.Lantuch-LyashchenkoA.I.2014. Concept of Reliability in Eurocode. Bridges and Tunnels: Theory, Research, Practice(Моститатунелі: теорія, дослідження, практика), 6: 79-88.Available Online: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/kontseptsiya-nadezhnosti-v-evrokode

XIV.Moiseenko R.P. (2014). Initial Reliability of Structural Elements, MethodicalInstructions. Publishing House of the Tomsk State Univesity of Architecture &Civil Engineering, Tomsk, Russia. Available Online: http://www.tsuab.ru/upload/files/additional/Moiseenko_R_P__Nachalnaja_nadezhnost_zhelezobetonnoj_balki_file_3553_3465_307.pdf

XV.Satyanov S.V., Pilipenko P.B., Kotelnikov V.S., Chetverik N.P., Frantsuzov V.A., Tamrazyan A.G., Bedov A.I. (2011). Risks in construction activities in the construction, reconstruction and major repairs of construction objects and their minimization. Assembly and Special Works in Construction (Монтажныеиспециальныеработывстроительстве), 3: 12-13.AvailableOnline: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=24173346

XVI.Klyueva N.V., Tamrazyan A.G. (2012). Basic Properties of Structural System, Reduces the Risk of Failure of Building Elements. Heralds of the South-Western State University (ИзвестияЮго-Западногогосударственногоуниверситета), 5-2(44): 126-131. AvailableOnline: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=18963132

XVII.Bulgakov S.N., Tamrazyan A.G., Rahman A.G., Stepanov A.Y. (2012). Reducing risks in construction in emergency situations of natural and man-made nature. Publishing House of the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Moscow, Russia.

XVIII.Manual for the Design of Residential Buildings. TSNIIEP Dwelling State Committee. Structures of Residential Buildings (Supplement to SNIP 2.08.01-85). (1989). Stroiizdat, Moscow, Russia. AvailableOnline: http://www.vashdom.ru/snip/P3_1_20801-89/

XIX.Rayser V.D. (1998). Reliability Theory in Building Design: Monograph. Publishing House ASV, Moscow, Russia. AvailableOnline: http://books.totalarch.com/n/1695

XX.Tamrazyan A.G., Dudina I.V. (2001). Influence of the variability of the controlled parameters on the reliability of prestressed beams at the manufacturing stage. Housing Construction (Жилищноестроительство), 1: 16-17. AvailableOnline: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=11713042

XXI.Tamrazyan A.G. (2011). Basic principlesof risk assessment in the design of buildings and structures. Bulletin of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (ВестникМГСУ), 2-1: 21-27. Available Online: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=17586437

XXII.Tamrazyan A., Avetisyan L.(2014).Estimation of load bearing capacity of eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete elements under dynamic loading in fire conditions. Applied Mechanics and Materials,638-640:62-65.

XXIII.Tamrazyan A.G., Dekhterev D.S., Karpov A.E., Laskovenko A.G. (2016). Determination of design parameters for assessing the reliability of platform joints of panel buildings. Proceedings of the International Conference “Contemporary Problems of Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings and Structures on Emergency Impacts: 413-416. AvailableOnline: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26043088

XXIV.Tamrazyan A.G., Dekhterev D.S. (2016).Assessing the Impact of Structural Parameters on the Reliability of a Platform Joint of Panel Buildings by the Method of Statistical Modeling. Industrial and Civil Construction (Промышленноеигражданскоестроительство),7:5-10.AvailableOnline: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26477142

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Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Space Trusses with Large Displacements






Analysis of spatial bar structures is a labor-intensive and complex task, and it must be carried out taking into account all possible limiting states in various operating conditions of structures. The aim of this paper is to give an insight into elastic-plastic analysis that enables determining the ultimate load of space trusses with large displacements. A direct method is treated in this investigation to gain insight into the computational effort required for the method. The algorithms for the direct methods are obtained by modifying the algorithms for incremental geometrically nonlinear analysis developed by one of the authors to account for yielding and plastic deformation in the bars of the truss. A Java software application has been developed based on the algorithms and the analysis of the space arch truss has been performed. The example demonstrates that direct limit analysis of space trusses with large displacements can be implemented successfully on the Java platform. The computer application is suitable as a test platform for a broad spectrum of investigations into elastic-plastic truss behavior.


Steel Space Trusses,Geometrical Nonlinearity,Elastic-Plastic Analysis,Limit State ,Direct Method,


I.Bathe, K.J., Polourchi, S. (1979). Large Displacement Analysis of Three-Dimensional Beam Structures. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 14:961-986.

II.Bathe, K.J., (1982) “Finite Element Procedure in Engineering Analysis”, Prentice-Hall, 1982.

III.Belytscko, T., Liu, W., Moran, B. (2000). Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures. J Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-948-749-261.

IV.Drucker, D.C. (1958). Plastic Design Methods –Advantages and Limitations. Transactions, Soc. nav. Arch. mar. Engrs 65, P. 172.

V.Galishnikova, V.V. (2009). Derivation of the governing equations for the problem of geometrically nonlinear deformation of space trusses on the basis of unified approach. J. of Volgograd State University for Architecture and Civil Engineering. Civil Eng. & Architecture, 14(33): 39-49 (in Russian).

VI.Galishnikova, V.V. (2009). Finite element formulation of the problem of geometrically nonlinear deformations of space trusses. Journal of Volgograd State University for Architecture and Civil Engineering. Civil Eng. & Architecture, 14(33), 50-58 (in Russian).

VII.Galishnikova, V.V. (2009). Modification of the constant arc length method based on the secant matrix formulation. Journal of Moscow State Universityof Civil Engineering, 2:63-69 (in Russian).

VIII.Galishnikova, V.V. (2007). Finite element modeling of geometrically nonlinear behavior of space trusses. Journal of Civil Engineers. Saint-Petersburg University if Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2(11):101-106 (in Russian).

IX.Galishnikova, V.V. (2007). Algorithm for geometrically nonlinear stability analysis of space trussed systems. Proceedings of the XXVII Russian School “Science and Technology”. Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, 235-244 (in Russian).

X.Galishnikova V.V. (2015). Generalized geometrically nonlinear theory and numerical deformation and stability analysis of space trusses. Dissertation submitted for the degree of Dr. of Tech. Science. Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 2015.

XI.Heidari, А, Galishnikova, V.V. (2014). A Review of Limit Load and Shakedown Theorems for the Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Steel Structures. Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings,3:3-18.

XII.Vu DucKhoi. (2001). Dual limit and shakedown analysis of structures. DoctoralThesis, University of Liege.

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Elastoplastic Deformation of Clay Brick Masonry under Biaxial Stresses and Mechanisms of its Performance


Makhmud Kharun,Oleg V. Kabantsev,Ashot G. Tamrazyan,




Plasticity properties of the masonry appear to be key requirements in order to predict seismic response from masonry construction. On the grounds of the experimental research results, the system of mechanisms of local damage in masonry elements (brick, mortar and contact nodes thereof) is formulated and justified. It is revealed that the state of interaction nodes of basic masonry materials under increasing stress is not irreversible: when the stress state of the node changes, the discrete transition from one state to another becomes possible. The proposed system of mechanisms of local damage and the tools to analyze the state of masonry elements serves grounds for elaboration of a structural model of clay brick masonry as piece-wise homogeneous multimodule composite environment. Based on the results of numerical studies of behavior of the clay brick masonry structural model with the proposed destruction mechanisms as well as on the grounds of the strength criteria system, an accurate prediction of the elastic and plastic deformation phases can be made to determine the plasticity characteristics of the masonry under biaxial stresses.


Brick, Masonry Joint ,Destruction Mechanisms,Strain-Stress State,Elastoplastic Deformation,


I.Butenweg C., Marinković M., Kubalski T. and Klinkel S. (2016). Masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames under horizontal loading. Stahlbetonrahmen mit Ausfachungen aus Mauerwerk unter horizontalen Belastungen. Mauerwerk, 20: 305–312.

II.Capozucca R. (2011). Shear behavior of historic masonry made of clay bricks. The Open Construction and Building Technology Journal, 5(1-6): 89-96.

III.Fattal S. and Jokel F. (1976). Failure hypothesis for masonry shear walls. Proceedings of ASCE, 102(3): 515-532.

IV.Förster V. (2017). Load-bearing capacity of slender unreinforced masonry compression members under biaxial bending. Mauerwerk, 21: 320–331.

V.Gabor A., Ferrier E., Jacquelin E. and Hamelin P. (2006). Analysis and modeling of the in-plane shear behavior of hollow brick masonry panels. Construction and Building Materials, 20: 308–321.

VI.Geniev G.(1979). On clay brick masonry rigidity criterion under in-plane stressed state. Structural mechanics and structural analysis. (2): 7-11.

VII.Gorshkov A., Vatin N., Nemova D. and Tarasova D. (2014). Definition of the overturning and holding moments for floor-by-floor leaning walls made from aerated concrete blocks. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 633: 897-903.

VIII.Kabantsev O. (2013). Particular strength criteria of masonry construction for the analysis of elastoplastic deformation. Seismic construction. Safety of Buildings, 3: 36-41.

IX.Kabantsev O. and Tamrazyan A. (2014). Account of changes in the calculation scheme in the analysis of the work of the construction. Engineering and construction magazine, 5(49): 15-26.

X.Kashevarova G., Novopashina E. and Akulova A. (2002). Masonry wall modeling to study patterns and mechanisms of destruction. Conference proceedings “Information, innovations, investments”, Perm.: 38-41.XI.Kashevarova G.and Zobacheva U. (2010). Masonry destruction modeling. Bulletin of the Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Construction and architecture, 1: 106-116.

XII.Küpfer H.B. (1973). Das nicht-lineare Verhalten des Betons bei zweiachsiger Beanspruchung. Beton und Stallhbetonbau, (11): 269-273.

XIII.Lemos J. (2006). Modeling of historical masonry with discrete elements. Computational Mechanics –Solids, Structures and Coupled Problems. Springer. pp. 375-392.

XIV.Lourenco P.B. (1996). Computational strategies for masonry structures. PhD Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.

XV.Onishchik L.(1939). Masonry structures of industrial and civil buildings. State publishing house of construction literature, Moscow, USSR.

XVI.Page A.W. (1979). A non-linear analysis of the composite action of masonry walls on beams. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng., 67: 93-100.

XVII.Papa E. (1996). A unilateral damage model for masonry based on homogenization procedure. Mech. Cohesive-Frict. Mater, 1: 349-366.

XVIII.Polyakov S.(1959). Adhesion in clay brick masonry. Gosstroyizdat. Moscow.

XIX.Polyakov S. and Safargaliev S. (1991). Solidity of clay brick masonry. Publishing House Gylym, Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan.

XX.Sousa R., Sousa H. and Guedes J. (2013). Diagonal compressive strength of masonry samples –experimental and numerical approach. Materials and Structures, 46: 765–786.

XXI.Tonkikh G., Kabantsev O. and Simakov O. (2012). Strengthening of Stone Walls by Unilateral Applications of Reinforced Concrete. 5th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisboa.

XXII.Tupin G.(1980). Deformation theory of pasticity of masonry. Structural mechanics and structural analysis, 6: 28-30.

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Experimental Study of Timber-Steel Arch with the Support Joints on Glued-in Steel Rods


Dmitry D. Koroteev,Farid A. Boytemirov,Makhmud Kharun,




Vital problem, occurring in the operation process of bearing timber structures, is improvement of their durability in conditions of aggressive environment. Another aspect of this problem is the increase of fire resistance of timber-steel structures. One of the possible design solutions of this problem is given in the research work. The aim of the research is study of experimental arch with support joints on glued-in steel rods. The arch was developed based on typical timber-steel arch with span length 11.8 m. Geometric shape and sizes of the arch were kept without changes, but steel elements were replaced by timber elements. Design features of the arch and calculation methods, taking into account bearing capacity of the joints on glued-in steel rods, are given in the research work. The experimental arch showed enough reliability during the test and stiffness during transportation and mounting. The arch loading was carried out in laboratory bench by using hydraulic jacks. The load increased until the arch destruction. Deflection and deformation of glued-in steel rods were measured during the test. Information about vertical deformation in the arch and stretching tensions along the length of the rods under the load were obtained in the test results. The results show that shear tensions in the joints spread along the bonding length unevenly and they have maximum value on the surface of timber elements. The arch showed perceptivity of practical using in the mild chemical-aggressive conditions and bearing structures with high requirements of fire resistance.


Timber-Steel Arch, Corrosion Resistance ,Fire Resistance ,Bearing Capacity, Steel Rods,


I.Asdrubali F., Ferracuti B., Lombardi L., Guattari C., Evangelisti L., Grazieschi G., (2017).A review of structural, thermo-physical, acoustical, and environmental properties of wooden materials for building applications. Building and Environment, 114: 307-332.

II.Audebert M., Dhima D., Taazount M., Bouchair A. (2011).Numerical investigations on the thermo-mechanical behavior of steel-to-timber joints exposed to fire. Engineering Structures, 33(12): 3257-3268.

III.Barber D. (2017).Determination of fire resistance ratings for glulam connectors within US high rise timber buildings. Fire Safety Journal, 91: 579-585.

IV.Bradford M.A., Hassanieh A.,Valipour H.R., Foster S.J. (2017).Sustainable Steel-timber Joints for Framed Structures. Procedia Engineering, 172: 2-12.

V.Cavalli A., Malavolti M., Morosini A., Salvini A., Togni M. (2014).Mechanical performance of full scale steel-timber epoxy joints after exposure to extreme environmental conditions. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 54: 86-92.

VI.Cheung K.C.K. (2016).Wooden Structures. Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, USA.VII.Custodio J., Broughton J., Cruz H.(2009).A review of factors influencing the durability of structural bonded timber joints. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 29(2): 173-185.

VIII.De Luca V., Marano C. (2012).Prestressed glulam timbers reinforced with steel bars. Constructionand Building Materials, 30: 206-217.

IX.Di Maria V., D’Andria L., Muciaccia G., Ianakiev A. (2017).Influence of elevated temperature on glued-in steel rods for timber elements. Construction and Building Materials,147: 457-465.

X.Dietsch P. (2011).Robustness oflarge-span timber roof structures -Structural aspects. Engineering Structures, 33(11): 3106-3112.XI.Erchinger C., Frangi A., Fontana M. (2010).Fire design of steel-to-timber dowelled connections. Engineering Structures, 32(2): 580-589.
XII.Gattesco N., GubanaA., Buttazzi M., Melotto M. (2017).Experimental investigation on the behavior of glued-in rod joints in timber beams subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading. Engineering Structures, 147: 372-384.
XIII.Gonzales E., Tannert T., Vallee T. (2016).The impact ofdefects on the capacity of timber joints with glued-in rods. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 65: 33-40.
XIV.Koroteev D.D., Boytemirov F.A., Stashevskaya N.A. (2017).The strength research of the adhesive joints of sheet structures. Journal ofFundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(7S): 414-424.
XV.Li Z., Dong H., Wang X., He M. (2017).Experimental and numerical investigations into seismic performance of timber-steel hybrid structure with supplemental dampers. Engineering Structures, 151: 33-43.
XVI.Loss C., Piazza M., Zandonini R. (2016).Connections for steel–timber hybrid prefabricated buildings. Part I: Experimental tests. Construction and Building Materials, 122: 781-795.
XVII.Reynolds T., Harris R., Chang W. (2014).Nonlinear pre-yield modal properties of timber structures with large-diameter steel dowel connections. Engineering Structures, 76: 235-244.
XVIII.Sandhaas C., van de Kuilen J.G. (2017).Strength and stiffness of timber joints with very high strength steel dowels. Engineering Structures, 131: 394-404.
XIX.Steiger R., Serrano E., Stepinac M., Rajcic V., O’Neill C., McPolin D., Widmann R. (2015).Strengthening of timber structures with glued-in rods. Construction and Building Materials, 97: 90-105.
XX.Yeboah D., Taylor S., McPolin D., Gilfillan R., Gilbert S. (2011).Behaviour of joints with bonded-in steel bars loaded parallel to the grain of timber elements. Construction and Building Materials, 25(5): 2312-2317.
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Arrangement and technological solutions for construction of quick-assembling single-storey houses


Dmitry D. Koroteev,Makhmud Kharun,Nadezhda A. Stashevskaya,Galina E. Okolnikova,




Quick-assembling single-storey houses are one of the possible design solutions if we want to get ready-made houses in short time. It is especially important in locations where new factories and plants, fields of the fossil fuels extraction are developed, various catastrophes occurred and there is a necessity to carry out recovery works. However, the spread of quick-assembling single-storey houses slows down because of design, arrangement and technological complications, which should be settled comprehensively. The aim of the research work is to provide competiveness of such houses by improving their manufacturing level, which includes design, arrangement and technological solutions, reducing price and time of getting ready-made houses. The manufacturing level is determined by labor input, time and cost parameters. The research results show that the design solution, improving manufacturing level, is the use of prefabricated flat packets of sandwich-panels, which transform into design position during the assembling process due to transformable joints. The transportation of the flat packets can be carried out if their size allows transporting them by road transport. The arrangement and technological sustainability of the construction system includes the following stages: selection of separate arrangement and technological conditions of the system; determination of groups of arrangement, technological and economic factors, which influence on sustainability of each condition of the construction system, determination of rational spheres of influence of arrangement and technological factors on cost of the transformable houses. The developed solutions can reduce cost and time of the assembling process and improve manufacturing level of single-storey houses.


Transformable Quick assembling,Single-storey house,Sandwich-panels,Construction process,


I.Abdolpour H., Garzón-Roca J., Escusa G., Sena-Cruz J.M., Barros J.A.O., Valente I.B. (2016) Development of a composite prototype with GFRP profiles and sandwich panels used as a floor module of an emergency house. Composite Structures, 153: 81-95.

II.Bygballe L.E., Ingemansson M. (2014) The logic of innovation in construction. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(3): 512-524.

III.Chardon S., Brangeon B., Bozonnet E., Inard C. (2016) Construction cost and energy performance of single-family houses: From integrated design to automated optimization. Automation in Construction, 70:1-13.

IV.Chirkunova E.K., Kireeva E.E., Kornilova A.D., Pschenichnikova J.S. (2016) Research of Instruments for Financing of Innovation and Investment Construction Projects. Procedia Engineering, 153: 112-117.

V.ELZomor M., Parrish K. (2016) Investigating Building Construction Process and Developing a Performance Index. Procedia Engineering, 145: 211-218.

VI.Eyers D.R., Potter A.T. (2017) Industrial Additive Manufacturing: A manufacturing systems perspective. Computers in Industry, 92-93: 2018-2018.

VII.Fernando P.L.N., Jayasinghe M.T.R., Jayasinghe C. (2017) Structural feasibility of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) based lightweight concrete sandwich wall panels. Construction and Building Materials, 139: 45-51.

VIII.Ferreira R., Pereira D., Gago A., Proenca J. (2016) Experimental characterization of cork agglomerate core sandwich panels for wall assemblies in buildings. Journal of Building Engineering, 5: 194-210.

IX.Gara F., Ragni L., Roia D., Dezi L. (2012) Experimental tests and numerical modelling of wall sandwich panels. Engineering Structures, 37: 193-204.

X.Gopinath S., Kumar R.V., Sheth H., Murthy A.R., Iyer N.R. (2014) Pre-fabricated sandwich panels using cold-formed steel and textile reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 64: 54-59.

XI.Iqbal M.I., Himmler R., Gheewala S.H. (2018) Environmental impacts reduction potential througha PV based transition from typical to energy plus houses in Thailand: A life cycle perspective. Sustainable Cities and Society, 37: 307-322.

XII.Koroteev D.D., Kharun M., Stashevskaya N.A. (2017) Manufacturing of concrete elements on mobile polygons withthe using of solar energy.International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4(10): 10-14.

XIII.Lee J., Park Y., Choi C., Han C. (2017) BIM-assisted labor productivity measurement method for structural formwork. Automation in Construction, 84: 121-132.

XIV.Motuziene V., Rogoza A., Lapinskiene V., Vilutiene T. (2016) Construction solutions for energy efficient single-family house based on its life cycle multi-criteria analysis: a case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112(1): 532-541.

XV.PremrovM., Leskovar V., Mihalic K. (2016) Influence of the building shape on the energy performance of timber-glass buildings in different climatic conditions. Energy, 108:201-211.

XVI.Rantala T., Ukko J., Saunila M., Havukainen J. (2018) The effect of sustainability in the adoption of technological, service, and business model innovations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172: 46-55.

XVII.Rawat G.S., Gupta A., Juneja C. (2018) Productivity Measurement of Manufacturing System. Materials Today: Proceedings, 5(1): 1483-1489.
XVIII.Reengwaree A., Premanond V., Torsakul S. (2013) A Study of Energy Saving in Building through Thermal Insulation with Plywood Inserted Honeycomb Sandwich Panels. Energy Procedia, 34: 964-972.
XIX.Saieg, P., Sotelino, E.D., Nascimento, D., Caiado, R.G.G. (2018) Interactions of Building Information Modeling, Lean and Sustainability on the Architectural, Engineering and Construction industry: A systematic review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174: 788-806.
XX.Seidlein L., Ikonomidis K., Mshamu S., Nkya T.E., Mukaka M., Pell C., Lindsay S.W., Deen J.L., Kisinza W.N., Knudsen J.B. (2017) Affordable house designs to improve health in rural Africa: a field study from northeastern Tanzania. The Lancet Planetary Health, 1(5): 188-199.
XXI.Shehata M.E., El-Gohary K.M. (2011) Towards improving construction labor productivity and projects’ performance. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 50(4): 321-330.
XXII.Stashevskaya N.A., Koroteev D.D., Kharun M. (2018) The technology development of the widened base formation for bored piles. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 10(3S): 606-614.
XXIII.Tanyer A.M., Tavukcuoglu A., Bekboliev M. (2018) Assessing the airtightness performance of container houses in relation to its effect on energy efficiency. Building and Environment, 134: 59-73.
XXIV.Wang I.K., Seidle R. (2017) The degree of technological innovation: A demand heterogeneity perspective. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 125: 166-177.
XXV.Woltman G., Noel M., Fam A. (2017) Experimental and numerical investigations of thermal properties of insulated concrete sandwich panels with fiberglass shear connectors. Energy and Buildings, 145: 22-31
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