The Enhanced Extraction Conditions for Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds from the Underutilized Red Pitaya Peels Using Response Surface Methodology


Ramya Vijayakumar,Siti Salwa Abd Gani,Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan,



Response Surface Methodology,Red Pitaya Peels,Antioxidant ,TotalPhenolic Content,Total Flavonoid Content,


In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was augmented to determine the effects of independent variables, namely extraction temperature (45-65°C), ethanol concentration (70-90%) and extraction time (80-120 min) to optimize the retained antioxidant compounds of the red pitaya peels through responses which were total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Regression analysis showed that more than 90% of the variation was explained by the second-order polynomial models of the different responses and the experimental values displayed that the extraction conditions had significant effect (p<0.001) on the TPC and TFC respectively. The optimized conditions were ethanol 82% for 103 min at 56°C with values of 172.01 mg/g for TPC and 7.45 mg/g for TFC respectively, which were in a good agreement with those predicted, thus indicating the suitability of the employed model in optimizing the extraction conditions of the red pitaya peels and similar natural functional product optimization.


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