Special Issue No. – 1, March, 2019

International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Science and Technology. International Conference organized by IPN Education Group, Malaysia and Scientific Research Publishing House, Iran

A Study of the Roofing Tiles Product Properties Manufactured From Natural Fibers Residues


Arkom Pasilo,Umphisak Teeboonma,




The objective of this work is aimed to study the roofing tiles product manufactured from natural fibers residues. The natural fibers residues in this work are kenaf fiber, corn cob fiber and palm fruit bunch fiber. Urea formaldehyde resin adhesive was selected as the binder. The properties of study were physical based on JIS A 5908-2003, mechanical based on TIS 535-2540 and ASTM D 256-2006a, thermal conductivity based on ASTM C 117-2010 and SEM technique was used to investigate the microstructural characteristics. Consequently, this work shows a compared to the properties of commercial roofing tiles in Thailand. The study results revealed that physical, mechanical, thermal conductivity and microstructural characteristics of the roofing tiles product are accordance with the standard test requirements. Finally, it was found that the roofing tiles product properties manufactured from natural fiber residues in this work are similar to commercial roofing tiles in Thailand.


Roofing Tiles,Natural Fiber Residues, Roofing Tiles Properties, SEM Technique,


I.Andrzej K,Bledzki, Hans-PeterF, MohiniS. and Omar F. (2012). Bio composites reinforced with natural fiber : 2000-2010. Progress in Polymer Science. Vol.45, Chapter 1.

II.Antich P,Vazquez A, Mondragon I, and BernalC. (2006). Mechanical behavior of high impact polystyrene reinforced with short sisal fibers. Composites part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. Vol. 37, pp. 139-50.

III.American Society for Testing and Material. (2010). Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat FluxMeasurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Host-Plate Apparatus. in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04, Baltimore, Philadelphia.

IV.Arkom Pasilo and Umphisak Teeboonma. (2007). Effect of binder on particle board properties manufactured from straw rice and rick husk. in the 21stConference of Mechanical Engineering Network of Thailand (ME-NETT), Chonburi, Thailand.

V.Arkom Pasilo and Umphisak Teeboonma. (2015).

VI.Development of roofing tiles manufactured from.

VIII.agricultural residues. in the 11stConference on Energy.

IX.Network of Thailand (E-NETT), Chonburi, Thailand.

X.Arkom Pasilo and Umphisak Teeboonma.(2016). Investigation of the properties of roofing tiles manufactured from agricultural residues”, International Conference on Advanced Material Science and Mechanical Engineering, AMSME 2016, March 20-21, Bangkok,Thailand.

XI.Bettini SHP.(2010). Investigation on the use of coir fiber as alternative reinforcement in polypropylence. Journal of Applied Polymer Science.Vol. 118, pp.2841-8.

XII.Brahmakumar M,Pavithran C, and Pillai RM. (2005). Coconut fiber reinforced polyethylene composites: effect of natural waxy surface layer of the fiber on fibers/matrix interfacial bounding and strength of composites. Composites Science and Technology.Vol.65, pp. 563-9.

XIII.Chasemi I,Azizi H, Naeimian N. (2009). Investigation of the dynamic mechanics behaviour of polypropylene/(wood flour)/(kenaf fiber) hybrid composites” Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology.Vol. 15 , pp. 113-9.

XIV.Eichhorn SJ. and Young RJ.(2004). Composite micromechanics of hemp fibers and epoxy resin microdroplets. Composites Science and Technology.Vol 64, pp. 767-72.

XV.Hassan A,Salema AA, and Ani FH.(2010). A review on oil palm emtry fruitbunchfiber-reinforced polymer composite materials, Polymer composites. Vol. 31 , pp. 2079-101.

XVI.Hattallia S, Benaboura A, Ham-PichavantF,Nourmamode A, and Castel-ian A. (2002). Adding value to alfa grass soda Iignin as phenolic resins. Lignin characterization.Polymer Degradation and Stability. Vol. 76 , pp. 259-64.
XVII.Hoareau W, Trindade WG, Siegmund B, Castellan A, and Frollini E. (2004). Sugar cane bagasse and curaua lignin s oxidized by chiorine dioxide and reacted with furfuryl alcohol characterization and stability.Polymer Degradation and Stability.Vol. 86 , pp. 567-657.
XVIII.Omar F,Andrzej K,Bledzki, Hans-PeterF and MohiniS. (2012). Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers. Vol. 45, Chapter 1.
XIX.Summerscales J, Dissanayakr NPJ, andHall W. (2010). A review of bast fibers and their composite,Part 1 Fibersas reinforcements. Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing. Vo. 41, pp. 1329-35.
XX.Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Tranmission Properties by Means of the Quarded-Host-Plate Apparatus.ASTM C 177-2010.
XXI.Tajvidi M,and Takemura A.(2010). Thermal degradation of natural fiber –reinforced polypropylenecomposites.Journal of ThermoplasticComposite Materials.Vol.23, pp. 281-98.
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Thermal Performance of Solar Air Heater with Porous Material


Teeboonma U,Boonthum E,




This paper presents an experimental thermal performance of flat plate solar air heater with and without porous material. The steel wool was selected as porous materials for this work. The solar radiations was simulated by halogen lights and dimmers and variac were used for regulating intensity. The couple of solar air heaters were constructed for with and without porous material. The experiments were conducted on both of solar air heaters at same location, simultaneously. The experiments were carried out the following conditions: solar radiation of 400, 600 and 800 W/m2, air mass flow rate of 0.01, 0.015 and 0.02 kg/s and porous material which having porosity of 0.92 and 0.94. The criteria to comparatively study of the thermal efficiency of solar air heater with and without porous material. The experimental results revealed that temperature difference between inlet and outlet of solar air heater increased with increment of solar radiation. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency of solar air heater having porous material was higher than solar air heater without porous material. Thermal efficiency of solar air heater was increased with air mass flow rate increased. In addition, the thermal efficiency will be enhanced because of increasing of heat transfer area due to porous material.


Solar Air Heater,Thermal Efficiency,Porous Material,Experimental,


I.Alvarez G., Arce J., Lira L. and Heras M.R., (2004). Thermal performance of an air solar collector with an absorber plate made of recyclable aluminum cans. Solar Energy. 77:107-113.II.Akpinar E.K. and Kocyigit F., (2010). Experimental investigation of thermal performance of solar air heater having different obstacles on absorber plates. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 37:416-421.III.Amer B.M.A., Hossain M.A. and Gottschalk, K., (2010). Design and performance evaluation of a new hybrid solar dryer for banana. Energy Conservation and Management, 57:813-820.

IV.Duffie A.J. and Beckman W.A. (1991) Solar Engineering and Thermal Process. (2nded), John Wiley & Sons, New York.

V.El-Sebaii A.A., Aboul-Enrin S., Ramadam M.R.I., El-Baily E.,(2007). Year round performance of double pass solar air heater with packed bed. Energy Conversion and Management, 48:990-1003.

VI.Esen H., (2008). Experimental energy and exergy analysis of a double-flow solar air heater having different obstacles on absorper plates. Building and Environment, 43:1046-1054.

VII.Gill R.S. Singh, S. Singh P.P., (2010). Low cost solar air heater. Energy Conservation and Management, 57: 131-142.

VIII.Kolb A., Winter E.R.F., and Viskanta R., (1999). Experimental studies on a solar air collector with metal matrix absorper, Solar Energy, 65(2):91–98.

IX.Mohamad A. A., (1997). High efficiency solar airheater, Solar Energy, 60(2):71-76.

X.Moummi N. Ali, S.Y. Moummi, A. Desmons, J.Y., (2004). Energy analysis of a solar air collector with rows of fins. Renewable Energy, 29(13): 2053-2064.

XI.Ozgen F. Esen, M. Esen H., (2009). Experimental investigation of thermal performance of a double-flow solar air heater having aluminium cans. Renewable Energy, 34(11):2391-2398.

XII.Ramani B.M., Gupta A., Kumar R.,(2010). Performance of a double pass solar air collector. Solar Energy, 84:1929-1937.

XIII.Saravanakumar and Mayilsamy K., (2010). Forced convection flat plate solar air heaters with and without thermal storage. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 69:966–968.

XIV.Sopian K. A., M.A. Ebrahim M. A., M.Y. Sulaiman and Musa E.A., (1999). Thermal performance of the double-pass solar collector with and without porous media. Renewable Energy, 18:557-564.

XV.SreekumarA., (2010).Techno-economic analysis of a roof-integrated solar air heating system for drying fruit and vegetable. Energy Conservation and Management,57:131-142.

XVI.Yousef B.A.A. and Adam, N.M., (2008).Performance analysis for flat plate collector with and without porous media. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 19(4):32–42.

XVII.Zheng W., Zhang H., You Y., Zheng X.,(2017). Thermal performance analysis of a metal corrugated packing solar air collector in cold regions. Applied Energy, 203:938-947.

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Healthy Routes To School (HRTS) For Overweight and Obesity Children


Zaharah Mohd Yusoff,Dasimah Omar,Yusfida A.Abdullah,Adilla Nordin,Hafiz Arif,Sarah Kamaruddin,




The trend of overweight and obesity cases in developing countries in recent years have been particularly alarming as the cases are consistently on the rise. Improving the economy rate has resulted to the increasing number of overweight and obesity cases among adults and children in a family. Overweight and obesity have commonly been known to associate with eating habits and this belief is assimilated into the people for many years. However, recent studies suggest that the factors to the issue are extended to the convenience and comfort that modern technologies have provided which affects our lifestyle due to passive mobility. Therefore, it is important that the awareness of practicing healthy lifestyle is incorporated in young children. Although there are efforts towards this campaign such as organizing physical activities in school as a part of the curriculum, it is insufficient to burn enough calories. Thus, Healthy Routes to School (HTRS) concept is introduced as a strategy to cope with this issue by encouraging childhood walking so its positive effects on health can be benefited. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) in this research is to monitor the distance and BMI classification, and to calculate the appropriate time taken for each mobility mode. The results were classified into four categories which are walking, public transport, parent vehicle, and cycling. Children that use parent vehicle and public transport contributed to 82.35% of overweight and obesity class while 17.65% were normal and underweight. In order to promote the HRTS concept, the distance and time taken were calculated to determine the most suitable and comfortable distance for walking and cycling to school.


Obesity,Healthy,Route to School,GIS,


I.Bong, ASL. & Safurah, J. (1996). Obesity among year 1 and 6 Primary School Children in Selangor Darul Ehsan. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition 2; 21-27.

II.Ismail MN & Tan CL (1998). Prevalence of obesity in Malaysia. Country Report at the Regional Advisory Meeting on Obesity. August 1998. Manila, Philippines.

III.Ismail MN & Vicknewary EN (1999). Prevalence of obesity in Malaysia: Data from three ethnic groups. Country report at the Asian BMI/Obesity Workshop. June 1999. Milan, Italy.

IV.Razalee Sedek, Poh Bee Koon and Ismail Mohd Noor (2010). Body Mass Index and Body Composition among Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) Personnel, Journal of Defence and Security, Vol.1, No 1: 2010.

V.Robert Wood (2009), Active Transportation: Making the Link from Transportation to Physical Activity and Obesity. Active Living Research, San Diego State University.

VI.Subramaniam (2015),the National Health and Morbidity Survey,Ministry of Health Malaysia,retrieved fromhttp://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia.

VII.Tracy E. McMillan, “The Influence of Urban Form on a Child‟s Trip to School,” paper presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Annual Conference, Baltimore, 2002.

VIII.Wang Y and Lobstein T (2006).Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int.J PediatricObese, 1(1), 11-25. WHO. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 894. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000. 268

IX.WHO/IASO/IOTF. The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. Health Communications Australia: Melbourne, 2000.

X.Xingyou Zhang (2006), Identification of Contrastive and Comparable School Neighborhoods for Childhood Obesity and Physical Activity Research, International Journal of Health Geographics 5:1 doi:10.1186/1476-072X-5-14, pg 1-9.

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Urban Built-Up Effects to Land Surface Temperature


Nur Adilla Nordin,Zaharah Mohd Yusoff,Nor Aizam Adnan,Ainon Nisa Othman,




Shah Alam is one of the regions which has a dense population and high level of urbanization in Malaysia. The study assumed high urbanization leads to the increase of temperature. The aim is to study the trend and relationship between Land Surface Temperature (LST) with built-up areas and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in three different years (1997, 2007, 2017) in Shah Alam, Selangor. This study used Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing software to process satellite imagery data (Landsat 5 TM, 7 ETM+, 8 OLI). Built-up area was processed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) from Landsat 8 (OLI) while the land use land cover was processed using Supervised Classification method. The results were analyzed using linear regression analysis in the Statistical Package of the Social Science (SPSS) to describe the relationship of the LST with built-up area and NDVI. The highest LST distribution of 35.717ºC is recorded in 2017. This indicates that built-up area gives more impact to the increase of LST in Shah Alam despite NDVI having the highest correlation relationship as shown by the values of R² which are 0.557, 0.533, and 0.585 for year 1997, 2007, and 2017 respectively. This paper focused on the changes of land use land cover for built-up area (i.e. residential and industrial area) which have increased from year 1997 to 2017. In year 1997, the percentage of built-up area is 36.69% and it has increased to 44.36% in year 2017. The study can conclude that urban built-up is one of the major factors in the increasing LST.


Built-up, LST,and use land cover,Linear regression ,


I.S. A. A. I.Ibrahim, R. Fauzi and N. M. Noor. (2016).”The Land Surface Temperature Impact To Land Cover Types,” The International Achieves of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, pp. 871-876. II.Shaharuddin, M. H. Noorazuan, W. Takeuchi and A. Noraziah. (2014). “The Effects of Urban Heat Islands on Human Comfort : A case of Klang Valley Malaysia,” Global Journal on Advances in Pure & Applied Science, pp. 1-8.

III.S. Ahmad, N. M. Hashim, Y. M. Jani, K. Aiyub and M. F. Mahmod. (2010). “The Effects of Different Land Uses on Temperature Distribution in Urban Areas,” in SEAGA, Hanoi.

IV.S. Elsayed. (2012). “Mitigation of the Urban Heat Island of the City of Kuala Lumpu, Malaysia,” Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research , pp. 1602-1613.

V.Dasimah and BO. (2009)., “Urban Form and Sustainability of Hot Humid City of Kuala Lumpur,” European Journal of Social Sciences, pp. 353-359.

VI.S. J. Brian. (2001). Remote Sensing Analysis of Residential Land Use, Forest Canopy Distribution and Surface Heat Island Formation in Atlanta Metropolitan Region, Georgia, Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology.

VII.S. A. Salleh, Z. A. Latif, W. M. Mohd and A. Chan. (2013). “Factors Contributing to the Formation of an Urban Heat Island in Putrajaya, Malaysia,” Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, pp. 840-850.

VIII.W. Y. Wan Ibrahim, A. Long and A. S. Permana. (2013). “Green Spaces Audits on its Accessibility in Pasir Gudang,” Planning Malaysia Geospatial Analysis in Urban Planning, vol. II, pp. 39-56.

IX.N. M. Jamaludin, N. Izma, M. F. Khamid and S. N. Wahab. (2015). “Thermal Comfort Residential Building in Malaysia at Different Micro-Climates,” Procedia Social Behavioral Sciences, pp. 613-623.

X.J. A. Richards. (2013). Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis, New York: Springer-Verlag.

XI.K. C. Tan, H. S. Lim, M. Z. MatJafri and K. Abdullah,. (2010). “Landsat Data to Evaluate Urban Expansion and Determine Land Use / Land Cover Changes in Penang Island, Malaysia,” Environ Earth Sci, pp. 1509-1521.

XII.S. S. Bhatti and N. K. Tripathi. (2014). “Built-up Area Extraction using Landsat,” GIScience & Remote Sensing, pp. 445-467.

XIII.N. A. Isa, W. N. Wan Mohd and S. A. Salleh. (2017). “The Effects of Built-up and Green Areas on the Land Surface Temperature of the Kuala Lumpur City,” The International Archieves of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol.XLII, pp. 107-112.

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Two Level Security Approaches System Architecture for Secure XML Database Centric Web Services against XpathInjections


ziah Asmawi,Lilly Suriani Affendey,NurIzura Udzir,Ramlan Mahmod,




Web services are deployed using eXtensible Markup Language (XML), which is an independent language for easy transportation and storage. As an important transportation for data, Web services has become increasingly vulnerable to malicious attacks that could affect essential properties of information systems such as confidentiality, integrity, or availability. Like any other application that allows outside user submission data, Web services can be susceptible to code injection attacks, specifically XPath (XML Path Language) injection attacks. This kind of attack can cause serious damage to the database at the backend of Web services as well as the data within it. To cope with this attack, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient secure mechanism from various angles, outsider and insider. This paper addresses both outsider and insider threats with respect to XPath injections in providing secure mechanism for XML database-centric Web services. We propose the two level security approaches for the ultimate solution within XML database-centric Web services. The first approach focuses on preventing malicious XPath input within Web services application. In order to address issues of XPath injections, we propose a model-based validation (XIPS) for XPath injection attack prevention in Web service applications. The second approach focuses on preventing insider threat within XML database. In order to deal with insider threat, we propose a severity-aware trust-based access control model (XTrust) for malicious XPath code in XML database.


Web Services,Web Services,Blind Xpath Injection,Model-Based,Hotspot,


I.A. Klein, Blind XPath Injection. (2005). Whitepaper from Watchfire, Director of Security and Research, Sanctum, (2004) 1–10.

II.J. Blasco, Introduction to XPath Injection techniques,(2007),24–31.

III.Jinghua Groppe,Sven Groppe,Filtering unsatisfiable XPath queries”, Journal Data & Knowledge Engineering , Vol.64 No. 1,Amsterdam, (2008)134-169.

IV.D. Mitropoulos,Fortifying Applications Against Xpath Injection Attacks, (2009), 1169–1179.

V.N. Antunes, N. Laranjeiro, M. Vieira, & H. Madeira,Effective detection of SQL/XPath Injection vulnerabilities in web services. SCC 2009 -2009 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, (2009), 260–267. http://doi.org/10.1109/SCC.2009.23

VI.Shanmughaneethi, Ravichandran, & Swamynathan,PXpathV: Preventing XPath Injection Vulnerabilities in Web Applications. International Journal on Web Service Computing, 2(3), (2011), 57–64. http://doi.org/10.5121/ijwsc.2011.2305

VII.S. Karumanchi, & A. Squicciarini, A Large Scale Study of Web Service Vulnerabilities.Journal of Internet Services and Information Security (JISIS),5(1), (2015), 53-69.

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Mortality Trends of Male Elderly in Malaysia: Comparison between Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model


R.I.Ibrahim,N.Ngataman,W.N.A.Wan MohdAbrisam,




Human life expectancies have shown remarkable improvement and this leads to significant reductions in mortality rates across all age groups, genders and countries. In Malaysia, mortality rates have been declined significantly due to the increases of life expectancies of an individual. Thus the proportion of the elderly in Malaysia is increasing. This study examines the mortality trends for male elderly of age group 60-64, 65-69, 70-74 and 75-79. The mortality trends analysis is done by discussing the pattern of mortality rate for the past 35 years period and 10 upcoming years resulted from Lee-Carter Model and Heligman-Pollard Model. Since these models involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) software will be used to estimate the parameters of the models. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) procedure is applied to acquire the forecasted parameters for both models as the forecasted mortality rates are obtained by using all the values of forecasted parameters. It was found that the declining trend of mortality in each age group although there is a fluctuation along the past 35 years. However, the estimated mortality rates for both mortality models move along with the actual rate.




I.Samad et al.,Population Ageing and Social Protection in Malaysia, Malaysia: University of Malaya(2013).

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V.L. Heligman andJ.H.Pollard,The Age Pattern of Mortality, Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, 107, Part 1(1980), 49–80.

VI.Ibrahim et al,Forecasting the mortality rates using Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model, Journal ofPhys.: Conf. Ser. 890012128 (2017),1-5.

VII.R. I. Ibrahim,Expanding an Abridged Life Table Using the Heligman-Pollard Model, Matematika24 (2008), 1-10.

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