Ummul Hanan Mohamad,Aliimran Nordin,Azlina Ahmad,



Android app,Gamification,mHealth,Public Health,Points,


The advancement and frequent usage of smartphones have penetrated everyday life to a point that mobile apps become one of the essential tools of conduct. Even now, the application of mobile app has shown its significance in the mHealth fields to help overcome many health-related problems. Hitherto, one of the global health issues that are terrorizing the public health is the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Yet, the public awareness on this matter is significantly low, suggesting that the awareness programs were slow to show their effectiveness. Thus, this study highlighted the need to develop an awareness mobile app, known as SEDAR, which is short for ‘Stop and End the Drastic Antibiotic Resistance’. In addition, the aim of this paper is to convey and describe the development of the SEDAR awareness app and convey the results of the preliminary testing of the app. SEDAR app was developed on the Android platform and consisted of two parts; the quest and the feedback. The quest evaluated the users’ responses on antibiotic-based situations and portrayed the feedback in the form of scores. Based on the preliminary testing of the SEDAR app, more than 60% of participants showed likeability to repeat the quest and 90% out of the participants who repeated the quest improved their scores. This inevitably demonstrated that the SEDAR app showed potential in encouraging the public to learn and understand more about antibiotic resistance issues, to which the conventional awareness programs had limitations.


I. Azmi, F., Skwarczynski, M., & Toth, I. (2016). Towards the development of synthetic antibiotics: designs inspired by natural antimicrobial peptides. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 23(41): 4610–4624.

II. Bodendorf, F., & Kaiser, C. (2010). Detecting opinion leaders and trends in online communities. In Proceedings of the 2010 Fourth International Conference on Digital Society (pp. 124–129). IEEE.

III. Chin, C. (2015). Patients can’t get enough of antibiotics. The Star Online. On the WWW, Oct 2018. URL
IV. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. In Proceedings of the 15th international academic MindTrek conference: Envisioning future media environments (pp. 9–15). ACM.

V. Ilhan, E., Sener, B., & Hacihabiboğlu, H. (2016). Creating Awareness of Sleep-Wake Hours by Gamification. In International Conference on Persuasive Technology (pp. 122–133). Springer.

VI. Islahudin, F., Madihah, A., Tamezi, A., & Shah, N. M. (2014). Knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 45(6): 1474.

VII. Johnson, D., Deterding, S., Kuhn, K.-A., Staneva, A., Stoyanov, S., & Hides, L. (2016). Gamification for health and wellbeing: A systematic review of the literature. Internet Interventions, 6: 89–106.

VIII. Koo, H. S., & Omar, M. S. (2018). Knowledge and attitude towards antibiotic use and awareness on antibiotic resistance among older people in Malaysia. In The 2nd International Conference On Pharmacy Education And Research Network Of Asean (ASEAN PharmNET 2017).

IX. Lim, K. K., & Teh, C. C. (2012). A cross sectional study of public knowledge and attitude towards antibiotics in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Southern Med Review, 5(2): 26–33.

X. Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission. (2017). Handphone Users Survey. On the WWW, July 2018. URL

XI. Mekler, E. D., Brühlmann, F., Tuch, A. N., & Opwis, K. (2017). Towards understanding the effects of individual gamification elements on intrinsic motivation and performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 71: 525–534.

XII. Mohamed Shah, N., & Abdul Rahim, M. (2017). Parental knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) on the use of antibioticsin children for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; 105–110.

XIII. Morschheuser, B., Hamari, J., Werder, K., & Abe, J. (2017). How to gamify? A method for designing gamification. In Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2017. University of Hawai’i at Manoa.

XIV. NHS. (2016). Antibiotics. On the WWW, June 2018. URL

XV. Norazah, A. (2014). National Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance Report (NSAR) Malaysia. Ministry of Health Malaysia.

XVI. Owen, J. E., Jaworski, B. K., Kuhn, E., Makin-Byrd, K. N., Ramsey, K. M., & Hoffman, J. E. (2015). mHealth in the wild: using novel data to examine the reach, use, and impact of PTSD coach. JMIR Mental Health, 2(1).

XVII. Pushpa, B. S., Safii, N. S., Hamzah, S. H., Fauzi, N., Yeo, W. K., Koon, P. B., … Ming, C. L. (2018). Development of NutriSportEx TM-interactive sport nutrition based mobile application software. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 10(1S): 339–351.

XVIII. Russo, M., Bergami, M., & Morandin, G. (2018). Surviving a day without smartphones. MIT Sloan Management Review, 59(2): 7–9.

XIX. Saam, M., Huttner, B., Harbarth, S., & World Health Organization. (2017). Evaluation of antibiotic awareness campaigns. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Collaborating Centre on Patient Safety.

XX. Sama, P. R., Eapen, Z. J., Weinfurt, K. P., Shah, B. R., & Schulman, K. A. (2014). An evaluation of mobile health application tools. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 2(2).

XXI. Sugijarto, D. P., Mukhtar, M., Safie, N., & Sulaiman, R. (2018). Developing Context Awareness Mobile Application for Blood Donation. International Journal on Informatics Visualization, 2(3): 118–126.

XXII. Topik, S. A., Mohamed Basri, Z. D., Lee, K. E., & Ab Wahid, M. (2016). A Review of the Occurrence of Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance Bacteria. World Applied Sciences Journal: 1762–1769.

XXIII. Tuten, T. L., & Solomon, M. R. (2017). Social media marketing. SAGE.

XXIV. Ventola, C. L. (2014). Mobile devices and apps for health care professionals: uses and benefits. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(5): 356.

XXV. WHO. (2016). Antibiotic resistance. World Health Organisation.

View | Download