Journal Vol – 15 No -8, August 2020

FLATTEN THE CURVE AND RAISE THE LINE TO REDUCE THE RISK OF COVID-19

Authors:

Ch. Vinay Kumar Reddy,Dr. I. Rajasri,Dr. Sammaiah,A.Rajesh,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00001

Abstract:

COVID-19, caused by a coronavirus, has led to a pandemic that threatens everyone. Everyone in the world is worrying about COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease-19). In late December 2019 an unidentified Corona virus, currently named as COVID-19 emerged from Wuhan, China. In this paper a brief description is given on Corona virus, its effects, safety measures and various modes of transmission of virus. A comparative study also done on the situation and safety measures of various countries to control the pandemic. In our study, it is observed that this virus is not a living organism and it has a genetic material inside an envelope. It is covered with the fat envelope known as lipid envelope. There are two different types of viruses namely Endemic and Pandemic. Endemic is something belongs to a particular people or country where as Pandemic is an epidemic that spread’s over different countries and continents. An Epidemic is a disease which affects a large number of populations within the region. Many researchers are working on these viruses. Corona virus is an Epidemic initially as it was born in Wuhan, China but its geographical Spread turned it as Pandemic declared by World Health Organization (WHO)[XIII]. 200 plus countries effected with this Virus. Long ago the similar kind of RNA sequences was circulated in Bats also known as SARS- COV (1) which created severe acute respiratory problems to the victim. After few years another virus MERS- COV was identified[XVIII, XV].

Keywords:

Corona Virus,COVID 19,Respiratory Syndrome,corona effects,Transmission of corona,effects of corona,

Refference:

I. Casanova, L. M., Jeon, S., Rutala, W. A., Weber, D. J., & Sobsey, M. D. (2010). Effects of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity on Coronavirus Survival on Surfaces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(9), 2712–2717.
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III. Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., … Zhang, L. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study.
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V. Di Pasquale G. Coronavirus COVID-19: quali implica- zioniperlacardiologia?GItalCardiol2020;21:243–245.
VI. Doremalen, N. V., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D. H., Holbrook, M. G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B. N., … Munster, V. J. (2020). Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England Journal of Medicine.
VII. Grady, D. (2020, February 6). China Begins Testing an Antiviral Drug in Coronavirus Patients. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
VIII. Griffiths, J. (2020, January 27). Wuhan coronavirus: Thousands of cases confirmed as China goes into emergency mode. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
IX. Guan, W.-J., Ni, Z.-Y., Hu, Y., Liang, W.-H., Ou, C.-Q., He, J.-X., … Zhong, N.-S. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China.
X. Holshue, M. L., Debolt, C., Lindquist, S., Lofy, K. H., Wiesman, J., Bruce, H., … Pillai, S. K. (2020). First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine.
XI. Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China.
XII. Li, Q., Guan, X., Wu, P., Wang, X., Zhou, L., Tong, Y., … Feng, Z. (2020). Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine.
XIII. Munster VJ, Koopmans M, van Doremalen N, et al. A novel coronavirus emerging in China — key questions for impact assessment. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(8):692–694.
XIV. Pittet D, Allegranzi B and Boyce J. The World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care and their consensus recommendations. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009; 30:611–622.
XV. Song, Z., Xu, Y., Bao, L., Zhang, L., Yu, P., Qu, Y., … Qin, C. (2019). From SARS to MERS, Thrusting Coronaviruses into the Spotlight. Viruses, 11(1), 59.
XVI. Tapiwa, G., Cécile, K., Dongxuan, C., Andrea, T., Christel, F., Jacco, W., and Niel, H., Estimating the generation interval for COVID-19 based on symptom onset data.
XVII. Tindale, L., Coombe M., Stockdale, J., Garlock, E., Lau W., Saraswat M., … Colijn, C. (2020). Transmission interval estimates suggest pre-symptomatic spread of COVID-19.
XVIII. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus- infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA 2020. Epub ahead of print, 7th February 2020. DOI: 10.1001/ jama.2020.1585.
XIX. Wang, M., Cao, R., Zhang, L. et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res (2020).
XX. Wu, J. T., Leung, K., & Leung, G. M. (2020). Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study.

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SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN INDIA DURING LOCK DOWN PERIOD WITH AN IMPACT OF COVID-19

Authors:

Adla Rajesh,R.Shashi Kumar Reddy,M.Shiva Chander,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00002

Abstract:

Novel Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2. It was first identified in the month of December in the year 2019.It was identified in Wuhan, China and spreading globally and there has been no ending yet. It has been spread to all over world and in the month of January, 2020 it has reached India and started spreading. Initially the Government of India has not expected the huge cases further, but due to rapid growth of heavy cases, the government of India has started lock down in the month of March with curfew on March 22, 2020. Total 6 lockdowns have been announced from March 25th to 31st Julywith drastic changes and twenty four reports given to Indian government by World Health Organization regarding COVID-19. Government of India could saturate the panic situations bringing social awareness among people saying preventive measures to be taken, in spite where few people could suffer during migrating. The leading role fellows during COVID-19 period also affected with COVID is the most panic situation India faced whereby Indian Government has taken a strong decision on 7th June, 2020 that the COVID patients had to stay at home and take the treatment themselves. Social distancing among the public in all places, wearing masks and using sanitizers found the main preventive measures for the controlling of Corona virus. The total number of cases registered in India was 10.5 Lakhs as on 18-07-2020.

Keywords:

COVID-19,corona virus,W.H.O,Migrants,Indian Government,Lockdown,Affect,

Refference:

I. C.Wang,Horby PW,Hayden FG, Gao GF.A novel corona virus outbreak of global health concern Lancet.2020.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9.

II. C Huang, Wang Y,LiX,et al.Clinical features of patients infected with 2019.

III. D,Xu V.Chang H,Rebaza A,Sharma L,Dela Cruz CS.Protecting health-care workers from subclinical coronavirus infection.Lancet Respir Med.2020.https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30066-7

IV. Richman DD,Whitley RJ, Hayden FG.Clinical Virology, 4th ed.Washington:ASM Press;2016.

V. Xinha.China’s CDC detects a large number of new corona viruses in the South China seafood market in Wuhan. Available at:https://www.xinhuanet.com/202001/27/c_1125504355.htm.Accessed20 Feb2020.

VI. Jump up to:Gettleman,Jeffrey;Schultz,Kai(24 March 2020).”Modi Orders 3-Week Total Lockdown for All 1.3 Billion Indians”. The New York Times.ISSN 0362-4331.

VII. ”Close Schools, all religious activities, extend lockdown: states tell Centre”. India Today. 7 April 2020.

VIII. Jump up to:”PM Modi announces extension of lockdown till 3 May.”Live mint 14 April 2020.

IX. A 2 More Weeks of Lockdown starting May 4”.NDTV.com.Retrieved 1 May 2020.

X. “Centre extends nationwide lockdown till May 31, new guidelines issued”.Tribuneindia News Service. 17 May 2020.Retrieved 17 May 2020.

XI. Jump up to: Sharma, Neeta (30 May 2020). Ghosh Deepshikha(ed.).””Unlock1”.Malls, Restaurants, Places of Worship to reopen June 8”.NDTV.Retrieved 30 May 2020.

XII. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/wrindia/india-situation-report-1.pdf?sfvrsn=5ca2 a672_0.

XIII. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/wrindia/india-situation-report-2.pdf?sfvrsn=962f 294b 0.
XIV. https://www.who.int/southeastasia/outbreaks-amd-emergencies/novel-coronavirus-2019/ protective-measures/stay-healthy-at-home.

XV. https://www.poynter.org/?ifcn_misinformation=putin-has-stated-russian-citizens-have -2-options-stay-home-for-15-days-or-in-jail-for-5-years.

XVI. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aarogya_Setu.

XVII. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_migrant_workers_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic.

XVIII. https://www.wsj.com/articles/worse-than-a-war-zone-covid-19-batters-indias-mumbai-city-11591531201.

XIX. https://www.ap7am.com/lv-330689-198-variants-of-coronavirus-identified-in-india.

XX. https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/in-other-news/050620/heres-how-doctors-are-being-put-to-risk-in-telangana-im-one-of-48-p.html.

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ON THE ELLIPTIC VARIATIONAL INEQUALITY FOR A SIMPLIFIED FRICTION PROBLEM

Authors:

Sahar MuhsenJaabar,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00003

Abstract:

The study investigated variational inequality of the elliptic to the second type of “A Simplified Friction Problem”. The operator of the second arrangement partial differential was coupled within elliptic variational inequality. It gives the mathematical and physical demonstration and some characteristics of the solution. The study highlighted the presence, singularity and the second type of EVI solutions characteristic.

Keywords:

Variational inequality,EVI first type,EVI second type,Friction Problem,Convex series,

Refference:

I. Armstrong-Hélouvry, Brian (1991). Control of machines with friction. Springer .
II. Brezis,H.(1968), Equations et Inequations Non Lineaires dans les EspacesVectorielsenDualite. Ann.Inst.Fourier,vol.18,pp. 115-175.
III. Dowson, Duncan (1997). History of Tribology, 2nd Edition. Wiley; 2 edition (March 6, 1998).
IV. J. L. Lions and G. Stampacchia.(1967), variational Inequalities, comm.on Pure and Applied Math., Vol XX, PP.493-519.
V. M. Chipotand G., Michaille, (1989), Uniqueness results and monotonicity properties for strongly nonlinear elliptic variational inequalities, AnnalidellaScuolaNormaleSuperiore di Pisa,4(16), pp. 137-166.
VI. Meriam, J. L and L. G. Kraige. (2002), Engineering Mechanics (fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
VII. R. C. Hibbele, (2007). Engineering Mechanics, (Eleventh ed.). Pearson, Prentice Hall.
VIII. Ruina, Andy and Rudra Pratap (2002). Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Oxford univiristy press.
IX. Stuart S. Antman,(1983),” The Influence of Elasticity in Analysis :Modern Developments”, American Mathematical society 9 (3), pp 267-291.
X. Van Beek, Anton. “History of Science Friction”. tribology-abc.com.

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RURAL ELECTRIFICATION WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY FED DC MICRO GRID

Authors:

M. Sai Krishna Reddy,D. Elangovan,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00004

Abstract:

Surveys and statistics showing majority of rural areas and remote places in third world countries are far from accessing electricity and facing power shortage. One important reason for this circumstance is power generating plants distant from rural areas. Despite of AC utility grid most of the loads requires power converters to obtain regulated DC. Also power conversions required in DC grids are less when compared with AC grids. Abundant Renewable energy like solar photovoltaic has potential to provide solution for the rural electrification through DC micro grid. This article presents the design, analysis and simulation of photovoltaic based DC micro grid system with low cost DC household which is not connected to utility Grid. The proposed system suited for running approximately 125 watts loads useful for daily routine. The Proposed system utilizes Boost converter as front-end converter to regulate required DC bus voltage for forming DC micro grid. Fly-back converter is used as point of load converters to meet different load specifications. Simulation study of the proposed system is done in PSIM 9.0.

Keywords:

DC micro-grid,Rural Electrification,Solar,Photovoltaic,Front-end Converter,POL Converter,

Refference:

I. A.Sieminski, A. Annual Energy Outlook 2015; US Energy Information Administration: Washington, DC, USA, 2015.
II. Chandel, S.S.; Shrivastva, R.; Sharma, V.; Ramasamy, P. Overview of the initiatives in renewable energy sector under the national action plan on climate change in India. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 54, 866–873. [Cross Ref]
III. Devendra Patil, Akshay K. Rathore, Dipti Srinivasan, and Sanjib K.Panda, High Frequency Soft-switching LCC Resonant Current-fed DC/DC converter with High Voltage Gain for DC Microgrid Application , 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2014, pp. 4293 – 4299.
IV. Global Buildings Performance Network. Residential Buildings in India: Energy Use Projections and Savings Potentials; Global Buildings Performance Network: Ahmedabad, India, 2014.
V. Hussain Athab, Amirnaser Yazdani, and BinWu, A Transformerless DC–DC Converter With Large Voltage Ratio for MV DC Grids, IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery 29(4) (2014).
VI. Jhunjhunwala, A.; Aditya, L.; Prabhjot, K. Solar-dc microgrid for Indian homes: A transforming power scenario. IEEE Electrif. Mag. 2016, 4, 10–19. [Cross Ref]
VII. Kaur, P.; Jain, S.; Jhunjhunwala, A. Solar-DC deployment experience in on-grid and near on-grid homes: Economics, technology and policy analysis. In Proceedings of the IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM), Atlanta, GA, USA, 7–10 June 2015; pp. 26–31.
VIII. Loomba, P.; Asgotraa, S.; Podmore, R. DC solar microgrids—A successful technology for rural sustainable development. In Proceedings of the IEEE PES Power Africa, Livingstone, Zambia, 28 June–2 July 2016; pp. 204–208.
IX. Li, W.; Mou, X.; Zhou, Y.; Marnay, C. On voltage standards for DC home microgrids energized by distributed sources. In Proceedings of the 7th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC),Harbin, China, 2–5 June 2012; Volume 3, pp. 2282–2286.
X. Makarabbi, G.; Gavade, V.; Panguloori, R.B.; Mishra, P.R. Compatibility and performance study of home appliances in a DC home distribution system. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), Mumbai, India, 16–19 December 2014.
XI. Nilsson, D.; Sannino, A. Efficiency analysis of low and medium-voltage DC distribution systems. In Proceedings of the Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Denver, CO, USA, 6–10 June 2004; pp. 2315–2321.
XII. Otero, R.; Angel, M. Power quality issues and feasibility study in a DC residential renewable energy system. Mast. Abstr. Int. 2009, 47
XIII. PongsakornSintupatsuk,SurinKhomfoi, and PrapartPaisuwanna, A dc to dc Multilevel Modular Capacitor Clamped Converter with Electrical Grounding Isolation and Bidirectional Power Flow for a dc Microgrid Application, 9th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology, 2012, pp. 1 – 4
XIV. Panguloori, R.B.; Mishra, P.R.; Boeke, U. Economic viability improvement of solar powered Indian rural banks through DC grids. In Proceedings of the Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON), Hyderabad, India, 16–18 December 2011.
XV. Rajesh, M.P.; Pindoriya, N.M.; Rajendran, S. Simulation of DC/DC converter for DC nano-grid integrated with solar PV generation. In Proceedings of the IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies-Asia (ISGT ASIA), Bangkok, Thailand, 3–6 November 2015.
XVI. Rodriguez-Diaz, E.; Vasquez, J.C.; Guerrero, J.M. Intelligent DC homes in future sustainable energy systems: When efficiency and intelligence work together. IEEE Consum. Electron. Mag. 2016, 5, 74–80. [Cross Ref]
XVII. Rodriguez-Otero, M.A.; O’Neill-Carrillo, E. Efficient home appliances for a future DC residence. In Proceedings of the IEEE Energy 2030 Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA, 17–18 November 2008; pp. 1–6.
XVIII. Starke, M.; Tolbert, L.M.; Ozpineci, B. AC vs. DC Distribution: A loss comparison. In Proceedings of the IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, Chicago, IL, USA, 21–24 April 2008; pp. 1–7.
XIX. Sungsik Park, and Sewan Choi, Soft-Switched CCM Boost Converters With High Voltage Gain for High-Power Applications, IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics 25 (5) (2010).

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JOINED HETEROGENEOUS CLOUDS RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: ANALGORITHMDESIGN

Authors:

Zayyanu Umar,Agozie Eneh,Okereke George E,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00005

Abstract:

Nowadays,cloud computing services have been an embracing computing technology by some organisations, academia and entrepreneurs.Cloud Service Providers (CSP) are constrained to specific resources, missing some of the resources their clients need;this triggers the need for many and specific interconnections of homogeneous or heterogeneous computing clouds by their protocols and architectures to interoperate and share available resources among them. Clouds interconnection can be with various functions and schemes. In this study, we deployed exploratory and Design Science research approaches and Cloud-Analyst to simulate interconnections and interoperability within heterogeneous cloud service providers. The study cannot be conducted with real cloud computing environments due to the high cost that may incur and authorizations from CSPs that may not be secured. In this paper, we built a system and algorithm that can handle the variability and complexities of the different clouds during the management of inter-cloud resources. The experiment result shows that the USER-BASE (UB1) can subscribe to Data Center1(DC1) through Data Center 3 (DC3) that it initially subscribed with average time 301.05 with insignificant differences when utilizing resources from Data Center 3 (DC3).

Keywords:

Cloud Resources,Clouds Heterogeneity,Algorithm,Cloud Service Providers,

Refference:

I.Aslam, S., & Shah, M. A. (2016). Load balancing algorithms in cloud computing: ASLMAA survey of modern techniques. In 2015 National Software Engineering Conference, NSEC 2015 (pp. 30–35). https://doi.org/10.1109/NSEC.2015.7396341
II. Demchenko, Y., Turkmen, F., Laat, C. De, & Slawik, M. (2017). Defining Intercloud Security Framework and Architecture Components for Multi-Cloud Data Intensive Applications, 945–952. https://doi.org/10.1109/CCGRID.2017.144
III. Garrison, C. p. (2010). Digital forensics for network, internet and cloud computing. Elsevier Inc.
IV. Ghomi, E. J., & Rahmani, A. M. (2017). Load-balancing algorithms in cloud computing : A survey. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 88 (March), 50–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2017.04.007
V. Goudarzi, Z., & Faraahi, A. (2014). Effective load balancing in cloud computing. International Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, 3 (6), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijiis.s.2014030601.11
VI. Hwang, J., Wu, S. Z. and F. y, & Wood, T. (2013). Benefits and Challenges of Managing Heterogeneous Data Centers. In 2013 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM 2013) (p. 7).
VII. Joshi, R. (2018). Study and Comparison of VM Scheduling Algorithm in Cloud Computing Using CloudSim Simulator. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology, 6 (5), 1751–1757. https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2018.5285
VIII.Kanungo, P. (2016). Design Issues in Federated Cloud Architectures. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 5 (5), 937–939. https://doi.org/10.17148/IJARCCE.2016.55229
IX. Kuechler, B., & Petter, S. (2004). DESIGN SCIENCE RESEARCH IN INFORMATION SCIENCE.
X. Makwe, A., & Kanungo, P. (2016). A Survey of Scheduling Policies in Cloud Computing Environment. International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology, 34 (4), 169–173. https://doi.org/10.14445/22312803/ijctt-v34p131
XI. Prajapati, K., Raval, P., Karamta, M., & Potdar, M. (2013). Comparison of Virtual Machine Scheduling Algorithms in Cloud Computing. International Journal of Computer Applications, 83 (15), 12–14. https://doi.org/10.5120/14523-2914

XII. Singh, A. (2015). A Review on Existing Load Balancing Techniques in Cloud Computing. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET), 4 (7), 16–24. https://doi.org/10.5120/ijca2015905539
XIII. Smit, M., Simmons, B., & Litoiu, M. (2013). Distributed , Application-level Monitoring for Heterogeneous Clouds using Stream Processing.
XIV. Thakur, P., & Shrivastava, D. K. (2015). Interoperability Issues and Standard Architecture for Service Delivery in Federated Cloud : A Review. In ks 2015 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (pp. 908–912). https://doi.org/10.1109/CICN.2015.179
XV. Toosi, A. N., Calheiros, R. N., & Buyya, R. (2014). Interconnected Cloud Computing Environments: Challenges, Taxonomy, and Survey. ACM Computing Surveys, 47 (7), 57.

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DESIGN OF HIGH PERFORMANCEADDER USING MODIFIED GDI BASED FULL ADDER

Authors:

P.Kishore,K.C.Koteswaramma,Y.Chalapathi Rao,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00006

Abstract:

Adders are the fundamental building blocks for any digital processors in VLSI design. Thepropagation delay should be low for high level applications and thus the speed is depends on the propagation delay of the full adders.Hence, the efficientdesign of the full adder is one of the major concerns in fulfilling the requirements of latest applications. As there is lot of research is carrying on full adder designs, still there is a scope of improvement. This paper aimed at design of high performance Carry Save Adder (CSA) using a modified 1-bit full adder. Initially, the basic building blocki.e., a full adder is discussed using existing and proposed Modified Gate Diffusion Input (Modified GDI) techniques. Later, by using this proposed adder the CSA have been designed and compared its performance with respect to speed, Power dissipation and area. All the proposed designs are designed in mentor graphics tools at 90nm technology.

Keywords:

1-bit full adder,Carry Save Adder,Gate Diffusion Input,Power Dissipation,Propagation Delay,

Refference:

I. Morgenshtein A. Fish, I.A. Wagner. “GateDiffusion Input (GDI) – A Power Efficient Method forDigital Combinational Circuits”, IEEE Transactions on VLSI, Vol.10, No. 5, pp 566-581(2002).

II. Pinninti Kishore, P.V. Sridevi, K. Babulu, “LowPower and Optimized Ripple Carry Adder and CarrySelect Adder Using MOD-GDI Technique”,Proceedings of Microelectronics, Electromagneticsand Telecommunications, Lecture Notes in ElectricalEngineering, Springer India. pp 159-171(2016).

III. Kiat -Seng Yeo, Kaushik Roy, “Low -Voltage,Low- Power VLSI Subsystems” Tata McGraw-HilEdition, pp. 83-85(2009).

IV. T.Kim, W. Jao, S. Tjiang, “Arithmeticoptimization using carry save adders”, Proceedings of Designautomation Conference, pp 433-438(1998).

V. T. Kim, W. Jao, S.Tjiang, “Circuitoptimization using carry saver adder cells”, IEEETransanctions on Computer Aided design of integrated circuitsand systems, Vol. 17, No. 10, pp 974-984(1998).

VI. Pinninti Kishore, P.V. Sridevi, K. Babulu, K.S.Pradeep Chandra, “A Novel Low Power andArea Efficient Carry-Lookahead Adder using Mod-GDI Technique”, International Journal of Scientificand Research, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp 1205-1210(2015).

VII. S. Hanson, B. Zhai, K. Bernstein, D. Blaauw, A.Bryant, L. Chang, K. K. Das, W. Haensch, E. J Nowak, D. Sylvester, “Ultralow-voltage,minimum-energy CMOS”, IBM Journal of Researchand Development, Vol. 50, No.5, pp 469-490(2006).

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EFFECT OF PULSE DURATION ON HOLE QUALITY OF UNDERWATER GLASS DRILLING USING CO2LASER

Authors:

Laith Hassan Auda,Ahmed R. Al-Hamaoy,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00007

Abstract:

Laser drilling is one of the earliest applications of lasers in materials processing. Less than 0.25mm in diameter is difficult to drill mechanically. Laser drilling offers good choices for small hole drilling, especially for hard and brittle materials, such as ceramics, but cracks appearance is one of the most difficulties that appears in this drilling. Therefore, this paper aims to study the effect of exposure time on the drilling of soda lime glass (SLG) using under water laser drilling technique. A 1.15 mm thickness SLG sheets were immersed 1mm below the water surface, then irradiated with CW CO2 laser. The laser parameters used were (24, 25 and 26) W power, (5, 7.5 and 10) sec exposure time and (1, 2and 3) pulses.

The drilled points were investigated under optical transmission microscope. Then the upper diameter, lower diameter, crack length and taper angle for these drilled holes were measured by analyzing the OM images using ImageJ software. Clearly appeared that hole diameter and the crack lengths could be controlled by the laser power and exposure time. When power or time were increased, the hole diameter increased. While the length of cracks is increased with increasing time and power. The good results found at laser power 24 W, five sec. and one pulse for hole diameter, while the minimum crack length was found at three pulses, five sec. and 24 W power.

Keywords:

Laser Drilling,Soda Lime Glass,Brittle Materials Drilling,Under Water Laser Process,CO2 Laser,

Refference:

I. Asibu, E. (2009). Principles of Laser Materials Processing (Vol. 4). New Jersey, Canada: John Wiley & Sons.
II. B.Nafissa, & A.walid. (2015, september 28). Optimization of Parameters CO2 Laser for Drilling Different Types of Glass. new journal of glass and ceramics, 5, 87-83.
III. Corcorn A, S. L. (2002). “The Laser drilling of multi-layer aerospace material systems. Journal of materials systems, 123(1), 100-106.
IV. E. Kacar, M. M. (2009, April 25). Characterization of the drilling alumina ceramic using Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209, 2008-2014.
V. Fenga, W., Guob, J., Yana, W., Wana, Y. C., & Zhenga, H. (2019, February 16). Deep channel fabrication on copper by multi-scan underwater laser machining. Optics and Laser Technology, 111, 653-663.
VI. Maini.K.A. (2013). Lasers and Optoelectronics;Fundamentals,Devices and Applications. United Kingdom: John Wiley &Sons.
VII. Ogura, H., & Yoshida, Y. (2003, May). Hole Drilling of Glass Substrates with a CO2 Laser. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 42(Part 1, 5A), 2881–2886.
VIII. Richard . H, J. .. (1998). Laser Ablation and Desorption (Vol. 30). San Diego, USA: Academic Press.
IX. Sun, X., Zhou, J., Duan, J.-A., D, H., & Cui., D. (2018, November 27). Experimental research on ultrasound-assisted under water femtosecond laser drilling. Cambridge University Press, 36, 487-493.
X. Sushant. D, N. S. (2006). A review on laser drilling and its techniques. International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering (AME 2006). Fatehgarh Sahib , Pungab , India.
XI. Tsai, C., & Li, C. (2009, june 22). Investigation of underwater laser drilling for brittle substrates. Journal of materials processing technology, 2838_2846.
XII. Yoshiki.K. (2017). High-aspect ratio laser drilling of glass assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide. proceedings of spie, 10092. san francisco,california,united states.
XIII. Wanga, H., Xub, G., Zhua, S., Zhouc, W., Rena, N., & Xiaa, K. (2018, October 4). Comparison of percussion laser drilling quality with and without water based ultrasonic assistance. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 36, 175-180.

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RETURN LEVEL ESTIMATES OF MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE FOR DIFFERENT RETURN PERIOD

Authors:

Muhammad Ali,Syed Asif Ali,ImtiazHussain,Faisal Nawaz,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00008

Abstract:

Since the problem of global warming and heat waves are the burning issues and became challenge for scientists in this era. Current analysis is also an attempt to solve this problem in Karachi Pakistan. This effort is to analyze frequency distribution by using daily maximum temperature data and then to find the best fitted probabilistic model for yearly maximum temperature series to see the possible return levels of maximum temperature in Karachi.After passing through a number of goodness of fit tests the Log-Logistic [3P] distribution is found to be the best fitted model to calculate return levels. Analysis also indicates that there is a chance of getting 44.3  temperature return level in the next coming 5 years, 45.8  in coming 20 yearsand 46.5  return levels in coming 50 years return period. These return levels propose that the Government officials and planners to take notice on plantation, water supply system, to facilitate better public transport to reduce the number of vehicles, to update health system, to increase electricity production etc.The results of this analysis are also useful to agricultural and environmental research.

Keywords:

Return level,Maximum Temperature,Return Periods,Heat waves,probabilistic model ,

Refference:

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CERTAIN EQUATION OFCENTRALIZERS ON SEMIPRIME INVERSE SEMIRING

Authors:

D. Mary Florence,R. Murugesan,P. Namasivayam,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00009

Abstract:

Let will represent a semiprime inverse semiring with -torsion free and has identity element, where . An additive mapping  from  in to itself satisfying fulfilled for all  and   be distinct integers,forces  to be centralizer. Moreover one more result involving centralizer has also been discussed.

Keywords:

Semiprime Semiring,Inverse Semiring,Commutator,Centralizer,Left (right) Centralizer,

Refference:

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ON TRANSVERSAL VIBRATIONS OF AN AXIALLY MOVING STRING UNDER STRUCTURAL DAMPING

Authors:

Sunny Kumar Aasoori,Rajab A. Malookani,Sajad H.Sandilo,Sanaullah Dehraj,A.H.Sheikh,

DOI NO:

https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.08.00010

Abstract:

In this paper the transversal vibrations of axially moving string under structural damping are studied. The focus on the possibility of truncation method has been discussed. Governing equations of motion is modeled as second order linear homogeneous partial differential equation with constant coefficients.  The string is taken to be fixed at both ends. To construct the asymptotic approximations, the Fourier expansion method in conjunction with the two timescales perturbation method is employed. Amplitude-response of individual mode is computed under the effect of various structural damping parameter values. It is obtained that the response of individual-mode decays as the time increases. Furthermore, to investigate the applicability of truncation method, the method of characteristic coordinates and two timescales perturbation method are used in conjunction with each other. The amplitude-response subject to the specific initial conditions under the effect of various structural damping parameter values is computed. It turned out that amplitude-response decay as the time increases. Energy of the system is also computed and found to be decaying as the time progresses. From the amplitude-response of the system and individual mode amplitude-response, it is found out that the mode-truncation is allowed in the structural damping case.

Keywords:

Transverse vibrations,asymptotic approximations,structural damping,perturbation method.,

Refference:

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