MaralZh.Yergazina,Rudolf Yu. Tsun-Shu,Zhanagul I. Rysbayeva,



Cytogram,parodont,gingival fluid,chronic localized periodontitis,ecology,


The relevance of the present study is explained by the fact that periodontal diseases appear in younger age and their aggressive forms develop in childhood, as well as high sensitivity of parodont structures in children to the impact of factors of the external and internal environment. The aim of the present study was to identify the peculiarities of cytological alterations in the parodont ofprimary school-aged children who live in the crisis zone of the Aral Sea region. The studies of morphology and functions of the organs ofthedentoalveolar apparatus in the population of the crisis zone of the Aral Sea area in the age-related aspect were not performed.  The leading approach to the investigation of this issue was a comparative analysis of a cytogram of gingival fluid in children with chronic periodontitis who live in the Aral Sea region and in an ecologically favorable region of Talgar city. It was established that, cytologically, chronic localized periodontitis in the examined children who live in the polluted zone of the Aral Sea region was characterized by a higher degree of the parodont damage than in the comparison group. The identified peculiarity of the parodont damage in children was explained by a complex influence of unfavorable factors in the Aral Sea region on a child organism (increased content of sulfates and chlorides, heavy metals and pesticides in the environment and food products). Materials of the article can be important for the diagnostics, therapy, and monitoring of inflammatory conditions of parodont and can be useful for dentists. Based on the obtained data, a program of the prevention of periodontal diseasesin ecologically unfavorable regions of Kazakhstan will be developed.


I. Abzhanova A., Arynova Z. Traces of heavy metals in the most consumable products in the Aral Sea region. Scientific society of students of XXI century. Natural sciences, Novosibirsk. 2014; 1(15): 45-50.

II. Archive of the Regional Research Center ofKarakalpak Republic: Modern ecological conditions in Karakalpak Republic (sociologic survey). Nukus, 2009.

III. Artyushkevich A.S. Parodontal diseases. Medical Literature, 2006.

IV. Bark C., Burgorf V., Hede N. Diseases of oral mucosa and lips. Clinics. Diagnostics and treatment. Atlas and guidelines, 2011.

V. Bykova I.A., Agadginyan A.A., Banchenko G.V. Cytological characteristics of the smears from the oral cavity by the index of cells differentiation. Laboratorypractice. 1987; 1:33-35.

VI. Daniel J. Chiego Jr. Essentials of Oral Histology and Embryology. A clinical approach. Fourth Edition. Publisher “Mosby”. 2013.

VII. Davletov S.P. Problem of the Aral Sea and Aral Sea region: yesterday and today. YoungScientist. 2014; 2: 634-636.

VIII. Denisov E.G. Periodontal diseasesin children. Kharkov, 2008.

IX. Ergazina M.Z. Cytofunctional analysis of the diurnal rhythm of gingiva in different age period. Abstract to dissertation. Almaty, 2005.

X. Ergazina M.Z., Yuy R.I. Prepatent for the invention, № 14227, № state registration 2002/1184.1 dated 25.09.2002.

XI. Fundamentals of Oral Histology and Physiology. Authors: R. Hand and Marion E. Frank, Wiley Blackwell. 2015.

XII. GrigoryanA.S.,GrudianovA.I., AntipovaZ.P., TitovM.N., FrolovaO.A., ErokhinA.I. New diagnostic method of the evaluation of parodont by the method ofcytophotometry of the gingival smears. Stomatology. 2000; 5: 4-9.

XIII. Gordeev G. Tradegy of the Aral Sea. Mysteries of XX century. 2008; 24: 5-8.

XIV. GOST Р 51 301 2005 Food products andfood ingredients. Stripping voltammetry evaluation of toxic elements content (cadmium, lead, copper, zync). Astana, 2007.

XV. Iordanishvili A.K. Diseases of endodontia, parodont and oral mucosa. Moscow:MEDpress-inform, 2008.

XVI. Kazakov M. Activity of IFAS in the water sector. Presentation International seminar. Almaty, 2007 (

XVII. Khufler F., Novitskiy Z. Green shield of the dried Aral Sea ground. Tashkent, 2003.

XVIII. Kolesnitskaya R.D., Sokolov A.D. Age-related peculiarities of physiological systems on a growing organism. Almaty, 2007.

XIX. Koloda N.A., Khomutovskiy O.A., Tsentilo T.D. Paradontosis: ultrastructure of gingiva and pulpa. Kiev: NaukDumka, 1980.

XX. Kolpakov M.G. Mechanisms of corticosteroid regulation of the organism functions. Novosibirsk, 1978.

XXI. Komarov F.I., Romanov Y.A., Moiseeva N.I. Chronomedicine – new direction in medical-biological science. Chronobiologyandchronomedicine.1989: 5-17.

XXII. Langle R.P., Miller C.C. Atlas of oral cavity diseases. Saint-Petersburgh: GEOTAR-Media, 2010.

XXIII. Mamadaliev S.P. Agro industrial complex of the Aral Sea region in the conditions of ecological disasters: status and perspectives. IssuesofKKOANRU, Nukus.2007;1: 49-52.

XXIV. Margaret J. Fehrenbach, Tracy Popowics (illustrated dental embryology, histology and anatomy. Fourth edition. Publisher Maryland Heights: Elsevier/Saunders, 2016.

XXV. Materials of the Agency of IFAS (Uzbekistan). History of the foundation of the International Fund of Aral Protection.

XXVI. Merkulov G.A. A course of pathohistological technique. M.: Medicine, 1969.

XXVII. Muhlemann H.R., Zandler H.A., Halberg F. Mitotic Activity of the Periodontal Tissues of the Rat Molar. J. D. Res. 1954; 33: 459- 467.

XXVIII. Nanci A., Cate R.T. Ten Cates’ Oral Histology: Development, Structure and Fundamentals. Saint Louis: Mosby. 2003.

XXIX. National strategy of the program of minor grants of the Global ecology foundation in Uzbekistan. Tashkent, 2008.

XXX. Noyes F.B. Noyes’ Oral Histology and Embryology. Epinions, Inc. 2003.

XXXI. Orban B.J. Orban’s Oral Histology and Embryology. Saint Louis: Mosby. 1976.

XXXII. Palvidis Th. Populations of interacting oscillators and circadian rhythms. J. Theor. Biol. 1969; 22(3): 418-436.

XXXIII. Peryazeva E.G., Plyusnin A.M., Gunin V.I. Migration of heavy metals in the environment. Ecology and Industry in Russia. 2001: 39-31.

XXXIV. Popular ecologic encyclopedia of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Tashkent. 2008; 1: 94.

XXXV. Records on the content of heavy metals and some chemical substances and in food products and water in 2009, 2010, 2011. Kyzylorda, Regional Health Inspection Services.

XXXVI. Sadovnikova L.K., Orlov D.S., Lozanovskaya I.N. Ecology and environmental protection in the conditions of chemical pollution. Moscow: High School, 2006.

XXXVII. Schweiger H.G. Die ZelleihreRhythmen. Luter – Univ. Halle – niffenberg. 1987; 30: 170-177.

XXXVIII. Speech of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov at the plenary meeting of the United Nations Summit “Development of the Millenium”. 21.09.2010.

XXXIX. Yuy R.I. Characteristics of cytogram of oral mucosal smears imprints in norm and pathology. Dentistry of Kazakhstan. 2014; 1(2): 29-35.

XL. Yuy R.I. Fundamentals of oral cavity and teeth histology (2d edition, revised and corrected). Almaty: “Evero” publishing house. 2018.

XLI. Yuy R.I., Smagulova E.N. Cytological elavuation of the effectiveness of pine resin containing toothpaste in patients with periodontitis. Issues of stomatology. 2001; 3(13): 58-62.

XLII. Zazulevskaya L.Y. Diseases of oral mucosa. Almaty: TOO Verena, 2010.

View | Download