Chemical Characterization of Ceramic Product Derived from Animal Bone by ICP-AES, FAAS, SEM and Chemometric Analysis


Nur Aidelia Rosli,Mohamad Isa Mohamadin,



Bone China,FAAS,ICP-AES,Chemometric Analysis,Halal,


Ceramic products derived from the bones of non-halal animal have become an issue for Muslims in terms of its uncertainty status for years. This research quantify 11 elements in Bone China with different percentages of bone ashes and porcelain (a ceramic body without bone ashes) performed by Inductively Coupled - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Plasma (Shimadzu -ICPE 9800 )for Co, Cu, Fe, Ag, Al, K, Na, Si, P and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy ( FAAS Agilent , 240FS-AA) for Ca and Mg elements. Chemometric Analysis analyzed contents of concentration for inorganic minerals and trace elements in Bone China and Porcelain sample by Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Factor Analysis (FA) and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC). The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) biplot indicated strong correlation between P-Ca-Mg inorganic minerals with Bone China bodies incorporated of bone ashes from 30% to 50%. Factor analysis of the first two factors F1 and F2 from eigenvalue represent 80% of the initial variability of the data confirming good quality projection. Clustering was determined by Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) analysis for Bone China with bone ashes in higher percentages clustered together while the Bone China with 10-20% bone ashes clustered together with porcelain depicted through distinctive hierarchical pattern.


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