Basim Galeb,Dalal Abdulmohsin,Haitham Bashar,Kadhum Al-Majdi,Aqeel Al-Hilali,



FSO,NRZ,Optisystem,RZ,Radio Frequency,WDM,


In different atmospheric conditions, Free Space Optical (FSO) transmission is vital because it sends data via light beams through the atmosphere. This technique transmits data quickly and efficiently with low signal attenuation in clear weather. This makes it ideal for short- to medium-range communication, especially in urban areas where cables or radio frequency spectrum are impractical. However, fog, rain, and snow can absorb or disperse the light signal, reducing transmission range and reliability for FSO. This research creates an effective FSO system that supports many channels and transmission distances. The suggested system will be tested in four weather conditions (light air, light rain, medium rain, and heavy rain) with attenuation values of 0.47, 1.988, 5.844, and 9.29 dB/km. Optisystem program version 21 designs and evaluates system performance based on QF, BER, and other criteria. In this research, multiple modulation formats are evaluated for best performance. QF exhibited a reversal relationship with distance, while BER showed a direct one. The suggested system can transmit for 25 km, 12 km, 10 km, and less than 6 km in light air, light rain, medium rain, and severe rain. This research also examines system performance under NRZ and RZ modulation formats. NRZ modulation is better for light air and clear weather transmission than RZ modulation since it requires less equipment and is easier to install. Since NRZ modulation requires no clock recovery overhead, bandwidth efficiency is usually higher. In light rain, RZ modulation minimizes optical fiber dispersion, extending transmission distances and improving signal quality. NRZ excels within 10 kilometers. NRZ works for 6 km and 4 km in medium and severe rain, although RZ's dispersion tolerance and synchronization make it better for longer transmission distances. For short distances, NRZ is suitable, but for longer distances, RZ is more resilient due to its better dispersion management and signal transmission.


I. Al-Gailani S. A., Salleh M. F. M., Salem A. A., Shaddad R. Q., Sheikh U. U., Algeelani N. A., & Almohamad T. A., : ‘A survey of free space optics (FSO) communication systems, links, and networks’. IEEE Access. Vol. 9, pp. 7353-7373, 2020. 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3048049
II. Alkholidi A. G., & Altowij K. S., : : ‘Free space optical communications — Theory and practices’. Contemporary Issues in Wireless Communications. Vol. 5, pp. 159-212, 2014. 10.5772/58884
III. Abdulwahid M. M., & Kurnaz S., : ‘The utilization of different AI methods-based satellite communications: A survey’. AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing. Vol. 3051(1), 2024. 10.1063/5.0192068
IV. Almetwali A. S., Bayat O., Abdulwahid M. M., & Mohamadwasel N. B., : ‘Design and analysis of 50 channel by 40 Gbps DWDM-RoF system for 5G communication based on fronthaul scenario’. In Proceedings of Third Doctoral Symposium on Computational Intelligence: DoSCI. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore. Vol. 479. pp. 109-122, 2022. 10.1007/978-981-19-3148-2_9
V. Abdulwahid M. M., & Kurnaz S. : ‘The channel WDM system incorporates of Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) hybrid MDM-PDM for higher capacity (LEO-GEO) inter satellite link’. Optik. Vol. 273, 170449, 2023. 10.1016/j.ijleo.2022.170449
VI. Abdulwahid M. M., & Kurnaz S. : ‘Implementation of two polarization DQPSK WDM Is-OWC system with different precoding schemes for long-reach GEO Inter Satellite Link’. International Conference on Green Energy, Computing and Intelligent Technology (GEn-CITy 2023). IET. Vol. 2023, pp. 134-141, 2023. 10.1049/icp.2023.1772
VII. Abdulwahid M. M., Kurnaz S., Türkben A. K., Hayal M. R., Elsayed E. E., & Juraev D. A. : ‘Inter-satellite optical wireless communication (Is-OWC) trends: a review, challenges and opportunities’. Engineering Applications, Vol. 3(1), pp. 1-15, 2024.
VIII. Al-Azzawi, Alabbas A., et al., : ‘A 95× 40 Gb/s DWDM transmission system using broadband and flat gain amplification of promoted parallel EDFA’. Optical and Quantum Electronics. Vol. 54(12) pp. 870. 2022. 10.1007/s11082-022-04201-w
IX. Abdulwahid M. M., Abdullah H. K., Ateah W. M., & Ahmed S. : ‘Implementation of Automated Water based Level Management Model by using SCADA system and PLC. 2023. 10.55529/jeet.33.40.51
X. Burhan I. M., Al-Hakeem M. S., Abdulwahid M. M., & Mosleh M. F. : ‘Investigating the Access Point height for an indoor IOT services’. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. IOP Publishing.Vol. 881(1), 012116, 2020. 10.1088/1757-899X/881/1/012116
XI. Chan V. W., : ‘Free-space optical communications’. Journal of Lightwave technology. Vol. 24(12), pp. 4750-4762, 2006.
XII. F. Abayaje, S. A. Hashem, H. S. Obaid, Y. S. Mezaal, and S. K. Khaleel. : ‘A miniaturization of the UWB monopole antenna for wireless baseband transmission’. Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences. Vol. 8(1), pp. 256-262, 2020. 10.21533/pen.v8i1.1034
XIII. H. A. Fadhil, A. Amphawan, H. A. B. Shamsuddin et al., : ‘Optimization of free space optics parameters: an optimum solution for bad weather conditions’. Optik. Vol. 124(19), pp. 3969–3973, 2013. 10.1016/j.ijleo.2012.11.059
XIV. H. A. Hussein, Y. S. Mezaal, and B. M. Alameri. : ‘Miniaturized microstrip diplexer based on FR4 substrate for wireless communications’. Elektron. Ir Elektrotech. Vol. 7(5), 2021. 10.5755/j02.eie.28942
XV. J. Ali and Y. Miz’el. : ‘A new miniature Peano fractal-based bandpass filter design with 2nd harmonic suppression 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Microwave’. Antenna, Propagation and EMC Technologies for Wireless Communications, Beijing, China, 2009. 10.1109/MAPE.2009.5355854
XVI. J. Singh and N. Kumar. : ‘Performance analysis of different modulation format on free space optical communication system’. Optik. Vol. 124(20), pp. 4651–4654, 2013. 10.1016/j.ijleo.2013.02.014
XVII. Kaushal H., Jain, V. K., & Kar, S., : ‘Free space optical communication’. New Delhi: Springer India. pp. 60, 2017.
XVIII. N. Kumar and A. K. Rana. : ‘Impact of various parameters on the performance of free space optics communication system’. Optik. Vol. 124(22), pp. 5774–5776, 2013. 10.1016/j.ijleo.2013.04.062
XIX. K. Rammprasath and S. Prince. : ‘Analyzing the cloud attenuation on the performance of free space optical communi- cation’. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP ’13), Melmaruvathur, India, pp. 791–794, 2013. 10.1109/iccsp.2013.6577165
XX. Mohsen D. E., Abbas E. M., & Abdulwahid M. M. : ‘Design and Implementation of DWDM-FSO system for Tbps data rates with different atmospheric Attenuation’. International Congress on Human-Computer Interaction, Optimization and Robotic Applications (HORA). IEEE. pp. 1-7, 2022. 10.1109/HORA55278.2022.9799974
XXI. Mohsen D. E., Abbas E. M., & Abdulwahid M. M., : ‘Performance Analysis of OWC System based (S-2-S) Connection with Different Modulation Encoding’. International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering. Vol.11(4s), pp. 400-408. 2023.
XXII. M. Q. Mohammed. : ‘HARNESSING CLOUD OF THING AND FOG COMPUTING IN IRAQ: ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATICS SUSTAINABILITY’. Journal of Mechanics of Continua and Mathematical Sciences. Vol. 19(2), pp. 66–78, 2024. 10.26782/jmcms.2024.02.00004
XXIII. M. S. Jameel, Y. S. Mezaal, and D. C. Atilla. : ‘Miniaturized coplanar waveguide-fed UWB Antenna for wireless applications’. Symmetry. Vol. 15(3), pp. 633, 2023. 10.3390/sym15030633
XXIV. Majumdar A. K., Ricklin J. C., Leitgeb E., Gebhart M., & Birnbacher U., : ‘Optical networks, last mile access and applications’. Free-Space Laser Communications: Principles and Advances. Springer, New York, NY. Vol. 2, pp. 273-302. 10.1007/978-0-387-28677-8_6
XXV. Shamsi Z. : ‘Duplex Baseband Signal Transmission Over Free Space Optical Link Employing Carrier Reuse’. (2022). 10.21203/
XXVI. Shareef, M. S. et al., : ‘Cloud of Things and fog computing in Iraq: Potential applications and sustainability’. Heritage and Sustainable Development. Vol. 5(2), pp. 339–350, 2023. 10.37868/hsd.v5i2.279
XXVII. S. A. Abdulameer, et al., : ‘Security Readiness in Iraq: Role of the Human Rights Activists’. International Journal of Cyber Criminology. Vol. 16,(2) pp. 1–14, 2022. 10.5281/zenodo.4766563
XXVIII. S. Roshani et al., : ‘Design of a compact quad-channel microstrip diplexer for L and S band applications’. Micromachines (Basel). Vol. 14(3), 2023. 10.3390/mi14030553
XXIX. Roshani S., Yahya S. I., Mezaal Y. S., Chaudhary M. A., Al-Hilali A. A., Ghadi, Y. Y. Ghadi & Roshani S., : ‘A compact filtering coupler with unwanted harmonic rejection using LC composite lines for communication systems applications’. Systems, Vol. 11(1), pp. 14, 2022. 10.3390/systems11010014
XXX. Tarrad K. M., : ‘Cybercrime Challenges in Iraqi Academia: Creating Digital Awareness for Preventing Cybercrimes’. International Journal of Cyber Criminology. Vol. 16(2), pp. 1–14, 2022. 10.5281/zenodo.4766564
XXXI. Y. S. Mezaal, Hammood D. A., & Ali, M. H., : ‘OTP encryption enhancement based on logical operations’. Sixth International Conference on Digital Information Processing and Communications (ICDIPC). IEEE. pp. 109-112, 2016. 10.1109/ICDIPC.2016.7470801
XXXII. Y. S. Mezaal and H. T. Eyyuboglu. : ‘A new narrow band dual-mode microstrip slotted patch bandpass filter design based on fractal geometry’. 7th International Conference on Computing and Convergence Technology (ICCCT), Seoul, Korea (South). pp. 1180-1184. 2012.
XXXIII. Y. S. Mezaal, H. H. Saleh, and H. Al-Saedi. : ‘New compact microstrip filters based on quasi fractal resonator’. Advanced Electromagnetics. Vol. 7(4), pp. 93-102, 2018. 10.7716/aem.v7i4.883
XXXIV. Y. S. Mezaal and S. F. Abdulkareem. : ‘New microstrip antenna based on quasi-fractal geometry for recent wireless systems’. 26th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), 2018: IEEE. pp. 1-4. 10.1109/SIU.2018.8404727
XXXV. Yahya S. I. et al., : ‘A New Design Method for Class-E Power Amplifiers Using Artificial Intelligence Modeling for Wireless Power Transfer Applications’. Electronics. Vol. 11(21), 3608, 2022. 10.3390/electronics11213608
XXXVI. Y. S. Mezaal, and J. K. Ali. : ‘A new design of dual band microstrip bandpass filter based on Peano fractal geometry: Design and simulation results’. 13th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium (MMS). Saida, Lebanon, 2013, pp. 1-4, 10.1109/MMS.2013.6663140.
XXXVII. Y. S. Mezaal et al., : ‘Investigation of PAPR reduction technique using TRC-SLM integration’. Int. J. Simul. Syst. Sci. Technol (2019). 10.5013/IJSSST.a.19.06.34
XXXVIII. Y. S. Mezaal, Eyyuboglu H. T., & Ali J. K., : ‘Wide bandpass and narrow bandstop microstrip filters based on Hilbert fractal geometry: design and simulation results’. PloS one. Vol. 9(12), e115412, 2014. 10.1371/journal.pone.0115412
XXXIX. Zaal R. M., Mustafa F. M., Abbas E. I., Mosleh M. F., & Abdulwahid M. M., : ‘Real measurement of optimal access point localizations’. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. IOP Publishing.Vol. 881(1), 012119. 10.1088/1757-899X/881/1/012119

View Download