Applications of Fractal and Quasi Fractal Geometries in Slot Antenna Design: A Review


Seevan F. Abdulkareem,Yaqeen S. Mezaal,



fractal geometries,slot antenna design,slot structure,wideband response,


Fractals stand for unique geometries that can be nice-looking for microwave circuit scholars. Latest expansions in wireless communication systems have been caused different experiments to manufacture high-grade diminished components. These experiments motivate microwave circuits and antennas engineers to look for solutions by examining diverse fractal structures. Nonetheless, there are several relevant limits of fractal antennas involving geometric restrictions, low gain, fractal orders and design complexity. These limits are feasibly solved by restructuring methods as in fractal reconfiguration and like pre-fractal structures. These methods have been known as semi or quasi-fractals that can be applied to antenna design without endless scale. Accordingly, quasi-fractal geometry with limited orders or iterations can be exploited for a specific dual/multiband antenna based on a particular fractal iteration. In this study, the unique properties of fractal geometries will be presented together with the most commonly used fractal geometries applied in the slot antenna design. In this respect, the application of fractal geometries in the slot antenna design can be classified into two categories. In the first category, the fractal geometry is applied directly such that it constitutes the whole slot structure, while in the second one; the fractal geometry is applied indirectly. In this case, there is a slot structure with Euclidean shape, such as triangle, square…etc., and fractal geometry has to replace each line segment in this structure. In addition, slotting processes by fractal or semi fractals in the ground plane of antenna substrates to produce dual or multiband or even wideband response have been discussed in this review paper.


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