Smrutirekha Mahanta,Manoj Kumar Moharana,




Distributed Generation,DG Placement Techniques,Optimal Locations,Optimal Size,


This manuscript outlines various work carried out in the field of Distributed Generation (DG). Increase in power consumption and shortage in transmission capabilities are addressed by DGs. In order to maximize the potential benefits, it is imperative to place the DGs at optimal locations and the DGs should have optimal size pertaining to that location. There are several research works that are carried out on the placement and sizing of DGs. Nonetheless, the methodical principle for this issue is still unsettled. Various optimization strategies can be used to obtain the appropriate placement and sizing of distributed generation (DG) in grids. This study provides a comprehensive overview of several DG placement approaches, including stochastic fractal search algorithms, particle swarm optimization, symbiotic search algorithms, opposition-based tuneable chaotic differential evaluation, and more. The benefits and potential uses of each method are briefly covered in this study. The study sheds light on the efforts made to determine the best location and size of DGs.


I. Abou El-Ela, Adel A., Ragab A. El-Sehiemy, and Ahmed Samir Abbas. “Optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation and capacitor banks in distribution systems using water cycle algorithm.” IEEE Systems Journal 12.4 (2018): 3629-3636.
II. Acharya, Naresh, Pukar Mahat, and Nadarajah Mithulananthan. “An analytical approach for DG allocation in primary distribution network.” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 28.10 (2006): 669-678.
III. Alam, Afroz, Bushra Zaheer, and Mohammad Zaid. “Optimal placement of DG in distribution system for power loss minimization and voltage profile improvement.” 2018 International Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies (GUCON). IEEE, 2018.
IV. Ali, E. S., S. M. Abd Elazim, and A. Y. Abdelaziz. “Ant Lion Optimization Algorithm for optimal location and sizing of renewable distributed generations.” Renewable Energy 101 (2017): 1311-1324.
V. Aman, M. M., et al. “A new approach for optimum simultaneous multi-DG distributed generation Units placement and sizing based on maximization of system loadability using HPSO (hybrid particle swarm optimization) algorithm.” Energy 66 (2014): 202-215.
VI. Angalaeswari, S., et al. “Hybrid pipso-sqp algorithm for real power loss minimization in radial distribution systems with optimal placement of distributed generation.” Sustainability 12.14 (2020): 5787.
VII. Das, Bikash, V. Mukherjee, and Debapriya Das. “DG placement in radial distribution network by symbiotic organisms search algorithm for real power loss minimization.” Applied Soft Computing 49 (2016): 920-936.
VIII. Devi, Sudha, and M. Geethanjali. “Optimal location and sizing determination of Distributed Generation and DSTATCOM using Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm.” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 62 (2014): 562-570.
IX. Devi, S., and M. Geethanjali. “Application of modified bacterial foraging optimization algorithm for optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation.” Expert Systems with Applications 41.6 (2014): 2772-2781.
X. Fandi, Ghaeth, et al. “Voltage regulation and power loss minimization in radial distribution systems via reactive power injection and distributed generation unit placement.” Energies 11.6 (2018): 1399.
XI. Ganthia, B. P., Barik, S., & Nayak, B. (2020). Application of hybrid facts devices in DFIG based wind energy system for LVRT capability enhancements. J. Mech. Cont. Math. Sci, 15(6), 245-256.
XII. Ganthia, B. P., Barik, S. K., & Nayak, B. (2020). Transient Analysis of Grid Integrated Stator Voltage Oriented Controlled Type-Iii DFIG Driven Wind Turbine Energy System. Journal of Mechanics of Continua and Mathematical Sciences, 15(6), 139-157.
XIII. Hung, Duong Quoc, Nadarajah Mithulananthan, and Kwang Y. Lee. “Optimal placement of dispatchable and nondispatchable renewable DG units in distribution networks for minimizing energy loss.” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 55 (2014): 179-186.
XIV. Hung, Duong Quoc, Nadarajah Mithulananthan, and R. C. Bansal. “Analytical strategies for renewable distributed generation integration considering energy loss minimization.” Applied Energy 105 (2013): 75-85.
XV. Jordehi, Ahmad Rezaee. “Allocation of distributed generation units in electric power systems: A review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 56 (2016): 893-905.
XVI. Kaushal, Pawan Kumar, and Minal Tomar. “Real and reactive power loss minimization of IEEE-33 bus by optimal DG placement using LSO in RDS.” 2017 International Conference on Energy, Communication, Data Analytics and Soft Computing (ICECDS). IEEE, 2017.
XVII. Kumar, Sajjan, Kamal K. Mandal, and Niladri Chakraborty. “A novel opposition-based tuned-chaotic differential evolution technique for techno-economic analysis by optimal placement of distributed generation.” Engineering Optimization 52.2 (2020): 303-324.
XVIII. Nguyen, Tri Phuoc, and Dieu Ngoc Vo. “A novel stochastic fractal search algorithm for optimal allocation of distributed generators in radial distribution systems.” Applied Soft Computing 70 (2018): 773-796.
XIX. Niknam, Taher, et al. “Optimal operation management of fuel cell/wind/photovoltaic power sources connected to distribution networks.” Journal of Power Sources 196.20 (2011): 8881-8896.
XX. Niknam, T., A. M. Ranjbar, and A. R. Shirani. “Impact of distributed generation on volt/var control in distribution networks.” 2003 IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference Proceedings,. Vol. 3. IEEE, 2003.
XXI. Prabha, D. Rama, and T. Jayabarathi. “Optimal placement and sizing of multiple distributed generating units in distribution networks by invasive weed optimization algorithm.” Ain Shams Engineering Journal 7.2 (2016): 683-694.
XXII. Prasad, C. Hari, K. Subbaramaiah, and P. Sujatha. “Cost–benefit analysis for optimal DG placement in distribution systems by using elephant herding optimization algorithm.” Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar 6.1 (2019): 1-12.
XXIII. Prakash, D. B., and C. Lakshminarayana. “Multiple DG placements in radial distribution system for multi objectives using Whale Optimization Algorithm.” Alexandria engineering journal 57.4 (2018): 2797-2806.
XXIV. Raut, Usharani, Sivkumar Mishra, and Debani Prasad Mishra. “An adaptive NSGA II for optimal insertion of distributed generators in radial distribution systems.” 2019 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). IEEE, 2019.
XXV. Raut, Usharani, and Sivkumar Mishra. “An improved Elitist–Jaya algorithm for simultaneous network reconfiguration and DG allocation in power distribution systems.” Renewable Energy Focus 30 (2019): 92-106.
XXVI. Reddy, P. Dinakara Prasad, VC Veera Reddy, and T. Gowri Manohar. “Whale optimization algorithm for optimal sizing of renewable resources for loss reduction in distribution systems.” Renewables: wind, water, and solar 4.1 (2017): 1-13.
XXVII. Siahbalaee, Jafar, Neda Rezanejad, and Gevork B. Gharehpetian. “Reconfiguration and DG sizing and placement using improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm.” Electric Power Components and Systems 47.16-17 (2019): 1475-1488.
XXVIII. Teimourzadeh, Hamid, and Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo. “A three-dimensional group search optimization approach for simultaneous planning of distributed generation units and distribution network reconfiguration.” Applied Soft Computing 88 (2020): 106012.
XXIX. Tran, Tung The, Khoa Hoang Truong, and Dieu Ngoc Vo. “Stochastic fractal search algorithm for reconfiguration of distribution networks with distributed generations.” Ain Shams Engineering Journal 11.2 (2020): 389-407.
XXX. Truong, Khoa H., et al. “A quasi-oppositional-chaotic symbiotic organisms search algorithm for optimal allocation of DG in radial distribution networks.” Applied Soft Computing 88 (2020): 106067.
XXXI. Yuvaraj, T., K. R. Devabalaji, and K. Ravi. “Optimal allocation of DG in the radial distribution network using bat optimization algorithm.” Advances in power systems and energy management. Springer, Singapore, 2018. 563-569.
XXXII. Zongo, Oscar Andrew, and Anant Oonsivilai. “Optimal placement of distributed generator for power loss minimization and voltage stability improvement.” Energy Procedia 138 (2017): 134-139.

View Download