Tat’yanaG. Zatsarinnaya,KonstantinP. Anikevich,AlexandrA. Skidan,SvetlanaA. Kachur,KirilB. Matuzaev,YuriyV. Braslavskiy,



Automatic control system,power unit,modernization,turbine installation,frequency,turbine generator,electronic speed controller,efficiency,reliability,automation,safety,


First and foremost, operation of nuclear power facilities is inseparably linked with solving the problems of their safety. To enhance safety, assure high reliability and effectiveness of controlling power units, software and hardware (SH) for computer-assisted control over a power unit [VIII, IX, XIV, V] are introduced, with electronics of electro-hydraulic governing systems of turbines (EHGS). EHGSis the principal system, which ensuresfunctioning of turbine in all stationary and intermittent operationmodes. Quality and reliability of supplying power to consumers directly depend on one function of the system for governing turbine, namely, on automatic frequency-capacity control. According to the existing standards of document [XVIII], regulation of frequency is specified by: the value of and time for mobilizing reserves, frequency droop, and dead-band of automatic control system (ACS). A response from power unit to changes in frequency shall be such that, when the value of drooping is fixed, a half of the required alteration in the power unit capacity is to be made within 10s, and 100% – within 30s. The standard specification prescribes the following recommended frequency droops for NPP turbines: 4…6%, recommended dead-band of the primary frequency regulation: a maximum of 0.02 Hz. Such requirements may bemet rather well, when using turbines equipped with electronic speed controller (ESC), which eliminates frequency deviations withhigh accuracy and makes it possible to promptly adjust the degree of irregularity and dead zone of frequency controller.Hence, to introduce standard primary and automatic secondary controlson the involved NPPs, pursuant to the modern requirements, a need has arisen to modernize their equipment. The design schemes of the systems for controlling steam turbines of NPPs had undergone changes, related to making electronics more sophisticated and simplifying hydraulics. However, in general, modernization has enhanced efficiency and reliability of the turbines’ ACSs. The data of rough calculation of structural reliability of the designed and newly modernized hydraulic systems, presented in this article, prove the results of quantitative assessment of reliability. A comparative analysis is given of standby and design ACSs of turbine К–1000–60/1500–2 considering major technical parameters and functional capabilities.


I. AnikevichК.P, ProleevА.V, SkidanА.А. Automatized Control System of turbo–installation ASUT–1000–2. Sevastopol: Sevastopol Institute Nuclear Energy and Industry Publ., 2003.

II. Artyukh S.F., Duel M.А., Shepelev I.G. Fundamentals of automatized control systems of energy-producing units of power stations. Khar’kov:Znanie LTD Publ., 1998.

III. BegunV.V. Probability analysis of nuclear plants’ safety. Kiev: NTTU КPI Publ., 2000.

IV. Brodov Yu. М., Savel’ev R.Z. Condensing units of steam turbines. Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1994.

V. Control systems of energy facilities. Available at: (15.04.16)

VI. Demchenko V.О. Automation and mathematical modelling of engineering processes for nuclear and thermoelectric power plants. Odessa: Astroprin Publ., 2001.

VII. Description of electronic speed governor.Available at:

VIII. Elizarov I.А., Маrtеm’yanovYU.F.,SkhirtladzeА.G., FrolovS.V.Automationhardwares. Software and hardware facilities and controllers.Moscow: Mashinostroenie-1 Publ., 2004,

IX. Eliseev V.V., Largin V.А., PivovarovG.Yu.Software and hardwarefacilitiesofautomatedtechnological process control systems. Кiev:KievUniversityPubl.,2003.

X. GOST 25804.3–83. Nuclear Power station technological processes control system equipment. Durability, endurance, resistance requirements for external influencing factors.

XI. Grigor’ev V.A., Zorin V.M. Thermal and nuclear power stations. Moscow:Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989.

XII. Lozovskiy V.N. Defects of junctions and details of hydraulic units. Defects`description. Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1974.

XIII. Polovko A.M., Malikov I.M. Book of problems on reliability theory. Moscow: Radio Publ., 1972.

XIV. Results ofSeverodonetsk research and production union «Impuls» work on automation of power units of NPP with VVER. Available at: (24.08.16)

XV. Rokhlenko V. Yu. Control system of KhTZ turbines. Moscow:Energoatomizdat Publ., 1988.

XVI. RokhlenkoV.Yu., Livshits M.E., Ageeva V.N. Hydraulics of electrohydraulic control systems (EGCS Hydraulics) of steam turbines. Ehergeticheskie I teplotekhnicheskieprotsessy v oborudovanie.2007;2: 130-138.

XVII. Shishmarev V. Yu. Technical Systems reliability. Moscow:Izdatelskiytsentr «Akademiya» Publ., 2010.

XVIII. STO 59012820. of organization.Norms of nuclear power units’ involvement in the rated primary frequency regulation.
XIX. Troyanovskij B.M., Filippov A.E., Bulkin A.E. Steam and gas turbines of nuclear power plants. Moscow:Energoatomizdat Publ., 1985.

XX. Trukhnij A. D. Stationary steam turbines. Moscow:Energoatomizdat Publ., 1990.

XXI. Turbine control systems.Available at: (30.08.16)

XXII. Zatsarinnaya T.G., Chuklin A.A., Shakhova N.V. Improvement of computer–based control systems for steam–turbine plants. Materialy XVII Mezhdunarodnojnauchno–prakticheskojkonf. «Nauchnoeobozreniefiziko–matematicheskikhtekhnicheskikhnauk v ХXI veke». Moscow, International Learned Society «Prospero» Publ. 2015; 17: 38-42.

XXIII. Zatsarinnaya T.G., Skidan A.A., Chuklin A.A., Melnik A.N. Modernization of hydroelectric follower actuator of control system of steam-turbineK–1000–60/1500. Ehergeticheskieustanovkiitekhnologii.2015; 1 (1):10-16.

XXIV. Zatsarinnaya T.G. Backup control with electronic speed regulator for turbine rotating speed control. Sciences of Europe. 2016; 2 (10): 109-113.

View | Download