Samad Baseer,Muhammad Sohaib Jamal,Iqtidar Ali,Gulzar Ahmad,



5G,mmWaves,Human Blockage Loss,Outdoor to Indoor Loss,NYUSIM,Mobile Communication,


In this paper, an open-source simulator named MYUSIM is utilized to find the impact of the Human Blockage loss and Outdoor to Indoor (O2I) loss on the best candidate of 5G mmWave (38 GHz) in the NLOS UMi environment which has been proven the authors in their previous study. For accurate channel modeling, the human blockage and O2I losses play a vital role as in real life situations these losses occur. The previous study includes an ideal condition in which these losses were not considered. NYUSIM uses a four-state Markov process to determine human blockage and two modes for O2I losses which include “High loss mode” for highly lossy materials like concrete walls and infrared reflecting glasses and “Low loss mode” for low loss materials like standard glasses and woods etc. These works are proof to the statement that there is a significant impact of the human and O2I losses on 5G mmWave bands which includes a smaller number of spatial lobes formed, lesser power is received, the pathloss is increased, etc. Therefore, these losses must be considered for modeling the next-generation mobile communication system i.e 5G.


I. Aalto University, AT&T, BUPT, CMCC, Ericsson, Huawei, Intel, KT Corporation, Nokia, NTT DOCOMO, New York University, Qualcomm, Samsung, University of Bristol, and the University of Southern, “White paper on “5G Channel Model for bands up to100 GHz”,” 21 Oct 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 29 8 2020].
II. G. R. MacCartney et al., “Rapid fading due to human blockage in pedestrian crowds at 5G millimeter-wave frequencies,” in IEEE Global Communications Conference, 2017.
III. G. R. MacCartney, Jr. and T. S. Rappaport, “A flexible millimeter-wave channel sounder with absolute timing,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 35, no. 6, p. 1402–1418, Jun 2017.
IV. G. R. MacCartney, Jr. and T. S. Rappaport, “Study on 3GPP rural macrocell path loss models for millimeter-wave wireless communications,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2017.
V. G. R. MacCartney and T. S. Rappaport, “Millimeter-wave base station diversity for 5G coordinated multipoint (CoMP) applications,” in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, May 2019.
VI. J. I. Smith, “A computer-generated multipath fading simulation for mobile radio,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 24, no. 3, p. 39–40, Aug 1975.
VII. J. Lota, S. Sun, T. S. Rappaport and A. Demostheno, “5G ULA With Beamforming and Spatial Multiplexing at 28, 37, 64 and 71 GHz for Outdoor Urban Communication: A Two-Level Approach,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 9972-9985, Nov 2017.
VIII. J. G. Andrews et al., “Modeling and analyzing millimeter wave cellular systems,” IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 65, no. 1, p. 403–430, Jan 2017.
IX. K. Haneda et al., “5G 3GPP-Like channel models for outdoor urban microcellular and macrocellular environments,” in IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), May 2016.
X. K. Haneda et al., “Indoor 5G 3GPP-like channel models for office and shopping mall environments,” in IEEE International Conference, May 2016.
XI. K. Zeman, P. Masek, M. Stusek, J. Hosek, and P. Sil, “Accuracy comparison of propagation models for mmWave communication in NS-3,” in 9th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), Munich, 2017.
XII. M. S. Jamal and S. Baseer, Analysis of Channel Modelling for 5G mmWave Communication [Unpublished Master’s thesis], Peshawar: University of Engineering & Technology, 2020
XIII. M. K. Samimi and T. S. Rappaport, “3-D Millimeter-Wave Statistical Channel Model for 5G Wireless System Design,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 2207-2225, July 2016.
XIV. Malathi N., B. Srinivas, K. Sainath, J. Hemanth Kumar, “SOC IP Interfaces¬¬¬-A Hybrid Approach-Implementation using Open Core Protocol”, J. Mech. Cont.& Math. Sci.,Vol.-14, No.-4, July-August (2019), pp 481-491
XV. R. H. Clarke, “A statistical theory of mobile-radio reception,” The Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 47, no. 6, p. 957–1000, July 1968.
XVI. R. W. Heath and D. J. Love, “Multimode antenna selection for spatial multiplexing systems with linear receivers,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 3042-3056, Aug. 2005.
XVII. S. Jain, “Mobile VNI Forecast 2017-2022: 5G emerges and is here to stay!!,” CISCO Inc., 26 2 2019. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 9 9 2019].
XVIII. S. Jaeckel, L. Raschkowski, K. Börner, and L. Thiele, “QuaDRiGa: A 3-D multi-cell channel model with time evolution for enabling virtual field trials,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 62, no. 6, p. 3242–3256, June 2014.
XIX. S. Sun, G. R. MacCartney and T. S. Rappaport, “A novel millimeter-wave channel simulator and applications for 5G wireless communications,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, 2017.
XX. S. Sun et al., “Investigation of Prediction Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Parameter Stability of Large-Scale Propagation Path Loss Models for 5G Wireless Communications,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 2843-2860, May 2016.
XXI. Subba Rao D., Dr. N.S. Murti Sarma, “A Secure and Efficient Scheduling Mechanism for Emergency Data Transmission in IOT”, J. Mech. Cont.& Math. Sci.,Vol.-14, No.-1, January-February (2019), pp 432-443.
XXII. T. S. Rappaport, G. R. MacCartney, M. K. Samimi, and S. Sun, “Wideband Millimeter-Wave Propagation Measurements and Channel Models for Future Wireless Communication System Design,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 3029-3056, Sept 2015.
XXIII. T. S. Rappaport, S. Sun and M. Shafi, “Investigation and Comparison of 3GPP and NYUSIM Channel Models for 5G Wireless Communications,” in IEEE 86th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), Toronto, 2017.
XXIV. T. S. Rappaport, Y. Qiao, J. I. Tamir, J. N. Murdock, and E. Ben-Dor, “Cellular broadband millimeter-wave propagation and angle of arrival for adaptive beam steering systems (invited paper),” in IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium, Santa Clara, CA, 2012
XXV. T. Bai and R. W. Heath, “Coverage analysis for millimeter wave cellular networks with blockage effects,” in IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing, 2013
XXVI. T. S. Rappaport, S. Y. Seidel and K. Takamizawa, “Statistical channel impulse response models for factory and open plan building radio communication system design,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 39, no. 5, p. 794–807, May 1991.
XXVII. T. S. Rappaport et al., “Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!” IEEE Access, vol. 1, pp. 335-349, 2013.
XXVIII. Y. Xing, O. Kanhere, S. Ju, and T. S. Rappaport, “Indoor wireless channel properties at millimeter-wave and sub-Terahertz frequencies: Reflection, scattering, and path loss,” in Proc. 2019 Global Communications Conferences, Dec. 2019.
XXIX. Y. Yu, Y. Liu, W. Lu and H. Zhu, “Propagation model and channel simulator under indoor stair environment for machine-to-machine applications,” in Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), Nanjing, Dec 2015.

View Download