Shahzad Hameed,Qurratul-Ain Minhas,Sheeraz Ahmed,Asif Nawaz,Asim Ali,Ubaid Ullah,



Energy efficient,Flying drones,Routing protocol,Grey wolf algorithm,


Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or flying drones are employing to retrieve data from their respective sources and help to accomplish Flying Ad hoc Networks (FANETs). These wireless networks deal with challenges and difficulties such as power consumption, packet losses, and weak links between the nodes. This is due to the high mobility of nodes, frequent network partitioning, and uncertain flying movement of the flying drones. Consequently, reduce the reliability of data delivery. Moreover, unbalanced energy consumption results in an earlier failure of flying drone and accelerate the decrease of network life. The performance of FANETs depends on the capabilities of energy consumption of each flying drone. They are expected to live for a longer period to manage the cost overhead. Energy-efficient routing is an important factor that helps in improving the lifetime of FANETs. In this research, we propose an Energy-Efficient Grey Wolf (EEGW) routing protocol for FANETs. This protocol is comprised of Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) inspired by the leadership hierarchy of grey wolves. It helps in minimizing the energy consumption, packet loss ratio, and aerial transmission loss incurred during transmission.


I. A. Ravi, Leela Satyanarayana. V. : ‘GREY WOLF OPTIMIZATION WITH WAVELET SCHEME FOR SAR IMAGES DENOISING’. J. Mech. Cont.& Math. Sci., Vol.-14, No.-5, September-October (2019) pp 558-570. DOI : 10.26782/jmcms.2019.10.00040
II. Ahmed Sheeraz. “Nature Inspired Optimization Techniques, A review for FANETs.” Sukkur IBA Journal of Emerging Technologies 3, no. 2 (2020): 40-58.
III. Anand, M., and T. Sasikala. “Efficient energy optimization in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) using better-quality AODV protocol.” Cluster Computing 22, no. 5 (2019): 12681-12687.
IV. Arafat, Muhammad Yeasir, and Sangman Moh. “Location-aided delay tolerant routing protocol in UAV networks for post-disaster operation.” IEEE Access 6 (2018): 59891-59906.
V. Kharb, Seema, and Anita Singhrova. “A survey on network formation and scheduling algorithms for time slotted channel hopping in industrial networks.” Journal of Network and Computer Applications 126 (2019): 59-87.
VI. Krishna, Kowligi R. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems in Crop Production: A Compendium. CRC Press, 2019.
VII. Lebedev, I., Ianin, A., Usina, E., & Shulyak, V. (2021). Construction of Land Base Station for UAV Maintenance Automation. In Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Electromechanics and Robotics” Zavalishin’s Readings” (pp. 499-511). Springer, Singapore.
VIII. Mahmud, Imtiaz, and You-Ze Cho. “Adaptive hello interval in FANET routing protocols for green UAVs.” IEEE Access 7 (2019): 63004-63015.
IX. Mariyappan, K., Mary Subaja Christo, and Rashmita Khilar. “Implementation of FANET energy efficient AODV routing protocols for flying ad hoc networks [FEEAODV].” Materials Today: Proceedings (2021).
X. Mekikis, Prodromos-Vasileios, and Angelos Antonopoulos. “Breaking the boundaries of aerial networks with charging stations.” In ICC 2019-2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2019.
XI. Mirjalili, Seyedali, Seyed Mohammad Mirjalili, and Andrew Lewis. “Grey wolf optimizer.” Advances in engineering software 69 (2014): 46-61.
XII. Nayyar, Anand. “Flying adhoc network (FANETs): simulation based performance comparison of routing protocols: AODV, DSDV, DSR, OLSR, AOMDV and HWMP.” In 2018 International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD), pp. 1-9. IEEE, 2018.
XIII. Odonkor, Philip, Zachary Ball, and Souma Chowdhury. “Distributed operation of collaborating unmanned aerial vehicles for time-sensitive oil spill mapping.” Swarm and Evolutionary Computation 46 (2019): 52-68.
XIV. Pham, Quoc-Viet, Ming Zeng, Rukhsana Ruby, Thien Huynh-The, and Won-Joo Hwang. “UAV communications for sustainable federated learning.” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 70, no. 4 (2021): 3944-3948.
XV. Srivastava, Ashish, and Jay Prakash. “Future FANET with application and enabling techniques: Anatomization and sustainability issues.” Computer Science Review 39 (2021): 100359.
XVI. Sufian, Abu, Farhana Sultana, and Paramartha Dutta. “Data load Balancing in Mobile ad hoc network using Fuzzy logic (DBMF).” arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.11627 (2019).
XVII. Waqas Khan, Vishwesh Laxmikant Akre, Khalid Saeed, Asif Nawaz, Tariq Bashir, Adil Khan, Naveed Jan, Sheeraz Ahmed, Zia Ullah Khan. : ‘IMPACT OF BLACK HOLE ATTACK ON THE PERFORMANCE OF DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING AND OPTIMIZED LINK STATE ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANETS’. J. Mech. Cont. & Math. Sci., Vol.-16, No.-3, March (2021) pp 13-30. DOI : 10.26782/jmcms.2021.03.00002
XVIII. Zeng, Yong, and Rui Zhang. “Energy-efficient UAV communication with trajectory optimization.” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 16, no. 6, pp. 3747-3760, 2017.
XIX. Zhang, Shuhang, Hongliang Zhang, Boya Di, and Lingyang Song. “Cellular UAV-to-X communications: Design and optimization for multi-UAV networks.” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 18, no. 2 (2019): 1346-1359.

View Download