Umair Khalid Qureshi,Parivish Sami Lander,Shahzad Ali Khaskheli,Manzar Bashir Arain,Zubair Ahmed Kalhoro,Syed Hasnain Ali Shah,Amir Khan Mari,Saifullah Bhatti,



Proposition Equivalence,Compound Proposition,Truth Table,Result Analysis,Logical Symbols,


This paper presents a Compound Propositional Law for Logical Equivalence, Tautology and Contradiction. The proposed Law is developed with the help of negation, disjunction, conjunction, exclusive or, conditional statement and bi-conditional statement. The idea of research is taken from de-Morgan law. This proposed law is important and useful for Logical Equivalence, Tautology and Contradiction for the research purpose because these are the rare cases in the field of research. This article aims to help readers understand the compound proposition and proposition equivalence in conducting research. This article discusses propositions that are relevant for proposition equivalence. Six main compound propositions are distinguished and an overview is given in the article. Hence, it is observed from the result and discussion that the compound proposition law is a good achievement in discrete structure for the logical Equivalence, Tautology and Contradiction purpose.


I. Agassi, J., Tautology and Testability in Economics, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Phil. Soc. Sci. vol: 1, pp. 49-63.
II. Avan, B. I. and F. White, The Proposition: An insight into research, Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association February, 2013.
III. Crisler, N., P. Fisher. Discrete mathematics through Applications. W. H. Freeman and Company, 1994.
IV. Kiran, K., Computational Thinking and Its Role in Discrete Mathematics, Biz and Bytes, Vol: 7(1), 2016.
V. Kwon, I., A Tautology is a Tautology: Specificity and Categorization in Nominal Tautological Constructions, In the Proceedings of the 35th annual meeting of berkeley linguistics society, 2009.
VI. Liu, J. and L. Wang, Computational Thinking in Discrete Mathematics, Second International Workshop on Education Technology and Computer Science, 2010.
VII. Ljnda, C. M., R. I Horvotzt and A. R. Fhnstbn, A Collection of 56 Topics with Contradictory Results in Case Control Research, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol: 17(3), 2015.
VIII. Marcela, P., L. Osorio and Á. A. Caputi, Perceptual Judgments of Logical Propositions, Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology, vol: 2(1), pp 1-14, 2019.
IX. Marion, B., Final Oral Report on the SIGCSE Committee on the Implementation of a Discrete Mathematics Course. In SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, vol: 2006, pp-268-279, 2006.
X. Selva, J. A. N., J. L. U. Domenech and H. Gash, A Logic-Mathematical Point of View of the Truth: Reality, Perception, and Language, 2014.

View Download