Photovoltaic (PV) System Feasibility for Urmar Payan a Rural Cell Sites in Pakistan


Muhammad Aamir Aman, Muhammad Zulqarnain Abbasi, Hamza Umar Afridi, Mehr-e-Munir, Jehanzeb Khan



Abstract Exponential growth in cellular services has fueled the penetration of telecommunication industry in rural areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). However, the scarcity of electricity at such localities has limited the growth and operation of network operators. One solution to overcome the problem includes utilization of diesel generator along with grids for continuous supply. However, this solution requires high fuel consumption, extensive maintenance and elevated delivery cost, which makes its operation less efficient. Photovoltaic (PV) systems are anticipated to solve the problem by providing necessary power at increased reliability and performance. This paper proposes the use PV system along with grids at rural areas of KPK to increase the operation and reliability of base stations (BTS’s). Feasibility of the proposed design is checked via Hybrid Optimization Model for Electrical Renewable(HOMER) Software. It is shown that the proposed PV grid hybrid system is more efficient as compared to the diesel and standalone PV system at the rural cell sites in KPK, Pakistan. Keywords:Cellular networks, Base station, Photovoltaic (PV) system, Feasibility.


Cellular networks,Base station,Photovoltaic (PV)system,Feasibility,


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Designing A Hybrid Full Adder Circuit Based On The Combination Of Cmos And Set Transistors


Seyed Mohammad Jalal Rastegar Fatemi, Nasim Goudarzi, Morteza Rostami



Abstract Single electron devices are new in Nano-electrics and are able to control currents on the scale of a single or multiple electrons. Relying on this ability, these devices have a potential capacity for mitigation of circuits' energy consumption. Nevertheless, it is anticipated that in a near future the manufacturing technologies will advance and these devices would become of extensive application in integrated circuits. The working basis of these devices is electron tunneling in a structure with Nano dimensions. The present paper firstly states the control mechanism of single electron displacement in a tunnel bond and secondly, investigates the manner of application of this mechanism in the most important single electron structures. According to the results, a hybrid full adder circuit has been simulated using the HSpice software. Overall, the results have shown that compared to previous works, the proposed hybrid circuit is advantageous in terms of power consumption and PDP. Key words: single electron devices, tunnel bond, coulomb blockade, full adder


single electron devices,tunnel bond, coulomb blockade,full adder,


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Improved Distance Measuring Using Laser Light


Mehr-e-Munir, ShahidLatif, Muhammad Aamir Aman, Waleed Jan, Jehanzeb Khan



Abstract Distance measuring without physical contact and long distance measuring is always a challenge. Distance measuring using laser beam light is an effective way but it causes too much distortion due to back of signal from destination. To preserve the level of distortion a photovoltaic cell is used to measure the intensity of laser beam light. This paper emphasizes on design of a circuit which uses photovoltaic cell and multi-meter. This paper shows the improved long distance measuring technique using photovoltaic cell. Keywords: Beam laser light, distance, photovoltaic cell, solar cell, effective distance measuring


Beam laser light,distance,photovoltaic cell,solar cell,effective distance measuring,


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